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Studying Jurisprudence Principles of Imam Hussein’s Uprising and Interpretations of Imam Khomeini and Shahid Mutahhari

Although  the  uprising  of  Ashura happened  as  an  event  of  a  special  time  and  place  and  finished  with  martyrdom  of  the  dearest  people  of  Islam,  but  in  a  short  time  have  changed  to  a  rich  and  long – lasting  culture,  the effect of which has extended during times and eras.

Uprising  of  Imam  Hussein and  Ashura has always  been studied by  analysts. However, ignoring  the  basis of  this  uprising  and  unilateral  view  on  this  movement  in  one  hand,  and  lack  of  documents  and  historical evidenced on the other hand make enemies of Alhe – Bayt to rise some doubts on its truth and legitimacy. This  research  studies  jurisprudence  points  of  this  holy  uprising  based  on  jurisprudence  context – with  little  reference to Sunni resources – , historical books and offering views of Shia jurists. One of the principles of this  uprising  is  enjoining  the  good  and  forbidding  the  evil  that  is  the  center  of  Imam’s  uprising,  which  their  condition  and  level  has  been  accord  with  his  uprising. Legitimate  movement  of  Imam  Hussein  and  cruel  ruling of Yazid and the way  of  his getting on the throne, nec essitates standing  against  Yazid and his violent  reign;  the  act  which  is  impossible  with  reservation.  It  can  be  honestly  said  that,  enjoining  the  goo d  and  forbidding the evil make uprising of  Imam Hussein a true pattern of standing against despotism and v i olence  and can be followed in all eras.

Introduction

Although  the  uprising  of  Ashura happened  as  an  event  of  a  special  time  and  place  and  finished  with  martyrdom  of  the  dearest  people  of  Islam,  but  in  a  short  time  have  changed  to  a  rich  and  long – lasting  culture,  the effect of which has extended during times and eras.

Absolutely,  one  way  o f  its  fecund  lasting  is  its  entrance  to  jurisprudence  discussions  which  influence  Islamic law and daily life  of humanity. However, if this uprising is discussed from jurisprudence  po int of view,  it can be a comprehensive pattern to determine Muslims’ issue s in all ages. Historical and moral aspects of this  uprising have been studied by many researchers, but less attention has been on its jurisprudence asp ects.

In this research, some jurisprudence aspects of Imam Hussein uprising, historical contexts and ide as of  some  of  Shia  jurists,  such  as  Imam  Khomeini  and  Shaheed  Mutahhari,  have  been  studied ;  so  that,  r esearch  objectives was ” Enjoining the good and  forbidding the evil, 2 – not  obeying violent ruler in era of violence and  injustice to characterize the obli gations of other Islamic uprisings “.

Research questions are 1) What are jurisprudence principles of  Imam Hussein’s uprising? 2) What  are  the  causes  of  rejecting  reservation  by  Imam  Hussein?  3)  Whether  his  movement  in  Karbala  is  applicable  in  other areas or not?; and research hypotheses  are A) Uprising of Ashura has various jurisprudence asp ects, such  as “enjoining the good and forbidding the evil”, and “not obeyin g violent ruler”; B)  While reservation is one  of  the necessities that Imams believe in some situations, but when the basics of Islam are in danger of  decline and  destruction,  reservation  is  not  acceptable,  and  Muslims  should  fight  even  if  i t  ends  with  murd er  of  two  sides;  and  C)  Uprising of  Imam  Hussein  is for  upholding  enjoining the  good and forbidding the evil and establishin g  Islamic  regime,  and  is  considered  as  a  complete  pattern  for  all  humanity,  a  worldly  pattern  effectin g  forming  revolutionary desire s in all eras.

There  are  many  books  and thesis  considering uprising of  Ashura and the way  of  martyred  of  families  of  Imam  Hussein and their enslavement  from  view point  of  history,  morality, etc. From jurisprudence  point  of  view, Najafi Chaleshtary has a th esis entitled “ Jurisprudence Study of Uprising of Ashura ”, in Qom University.  There  are also some books on this topic such  as “ Ashura In Jurisprudence ”  of Mortazavi, and “ Husseini Epic ”  of Shaheed Mutahhari.

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