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The Scriptural and Philosophical Arguments of Islamic Modest Covering

The concept of Hijab is one of the most authentic rulings ever mandated by Allah SWT and Scholars have always made it clear that covering is obligatory for both men and women but the extent is different.

Literal Meaning of Hijab

The term “Hijab” (حجاب) had a somewhat different connotation before changing into the meaning of Islamic women’s veil. In fact, even at the time of prophet and Imams A.S, Hijab used to translate as a Barrier which is its literal meaning. Other than Barrier, it is also defined as a Curtain, hedge or screen.

For example, God Almighty uses this word in His revelation when He instructs Muslims from the early Islamic community that if they wanted to ask prophet’s wives for some food or utility, they must do so from behind a screen, not in person and face-to-face.

So, Hijab in literature is slightly similar to the meaning of Hijab in Jurisprudence and common convention, as both connote concealing one from another, but the bases are variable, one refers to a manifestation of piety and faith while the other is sort of a substance which intercepts between two things and doesn’t allow them to intervene.

Specific Meaning

In Islamic literature Hijab defines as:

A divine limitation in clothing[1] dedicated to mature men and women in front of religiously none-intimate individuals which represents modesty, piety and devotion.

Our brief paper is not to accumulate all the elaborate details of the subject matter but, will – by the will of Allah SWT – enter precisely and sufficiently to explain this controversial topic; hence, our main effort will concern the jurisprudential and psychological tenets of Hijab which the writers deem the sources of many arguments.

CAN HIJAB BE A LAW?

Some might say hijab is a personal decision which ladies have to choose themselves whether they want to wear it; Islam by the way calls it to the contrary, a social task which not only women but also men have to abide by.

Any social interaction, has the capability to be restricted as it has the potential to bring harm to the people of society.

As for the hijab concept, one of the most important things that makes it a social issue is the nature of humankind. Their sociality is what helps them co-exist and create a society so, what happened when you don’t respect the boundaries of sociability?

Not only that but another factor that has the potential to bring about moral corruption if used uncontrollably, is Human Generation Survival; an outstanding desire for the opposite gender which we wouldn’t be here without. Any sane individual would acknowledge the necessity of having some sort of restriction over it.

Compile all that alongside parents’ compassion and care to look after their children and to bring them up.It is obvious that many factors have to function simultaneously and together for an individual to grow and have a role in society. As we look closer, we find out that the more secure a society the more prepared is the ground in which people especially the youth could flourish.

The problem lies in the obstacles that exist in their path and prevents them from reaching out to their goals; be it financial, domestic or even social. In fact, social anomies can be the most destructive.

Among the social anomies, people’s unsettled correlations take the top chart and these correlations are hugely affected by Covering and Fashion.

How is it that without traffic lights (where it is needed), transportation will be a disaster? How come we have an abundance of laws and regulations on how and where to drive a car but not one for the shape of the car or the color of passengers? You might think that’s an absurd questions; everybody can simply understand that for the streets to be safe and devoid of accidents we need traffic lights but shape of the car (as long as it is called a car)or color of a passenger, in itself, does not really matter nor cause any harm to the people thus, there is no need for legislations there.

So far, we have put that fashion and covering has a major impact on the way we live our lives hence – similar to the traffic lights – without proper ruling on how people should appear in the society, many will be endangered, family corruption, rise of unlawful relationships and unrighteous upbringings are a few of its consequences.

So, from the aforementioned data we conclude that covering in and of itself and to an extent is a necessity and can be the subject of Law; the same goes for its features and boundaries.

But why do we have to cover ourselves, especially while we believe that God’s creation is pure beauty? If it has to be hidden to some extent why even create such a thing in the first place?!

LOGICAL ARGUMENTS FOR HIJAB

There are arguments about modest covering that any cognizant individual would acknowledge, here are premises that lead to the conclusion needed (some of them might have been mentioned above):

  1. Mankind is by nature a sociable being, it’s impossible for him to live on his own without relying upon asociety.
  2. His main goal is to achieve immortal success[2] and in doing so he needs to pass a lifetime test.
  3. He is not forced into what he does[3] and also, he is not infallible thus could falter, estrange from the true path and fail the test.
  4. Other than the possibility to make mistakes, there are external agents which have the potential and do act against his interest (e.g. evil temptations) and those agents can sometimes be orchestrated by himself (Nafs Ammara).
  5. In order to stay away from the potential harms those agents could actualize, he must find ways to avoid them as much as possible and prevent them if they are already in process.

You might ask what those factors are and what the cure is; according to given data one of the most important features of humans is their sociality then the safer and well-organized our society, the better they can thrive and flourish; civilization and development in society have an intense relation. So, whether we like it or not, prospering in life is subsequent to prospering in our own family and that does not happen unless the family is a stable one, stability in family is when the members live together while loving each other and trusting one another and that’s when norms and manner are well-settled in society because society influences family, but didn’t we just proved that family is what creates the society?!You can now see that society ended up influencing on itself! As we said, when we look closer, we see that family is what makes the society a society! We might not be able to fix the society at large but we surely are able to lead our family to where it is supposed to and just imagine what would happen if everyone in the world did the same? So, as soon as you solve the problem of improper covering with the beauty of Hijab within your family, you will be able to live in a healthy society where flourishment and civilization is definite. Finally, one of the most influential agents we were looking for, was improper covering and the solution was HIJAB.

HIJAB IN QURAN

The concept of Hijab is one of the most authentic rulings ever mandated by Allah SWT and Scholars have always made it clear that covering is obligatory for both men and women but the extant is different.

Quran speaks of how men should drop their gaze and not look at women in a lustful way. In addition to that, He commands them to protect themselves from using their private parts where they are not supposed to and stay pious:

<قُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصارِهِمْ وَ يَحْفَظُوا فُرُوجَهُمْ ذلِكَ أَزْكى‏ لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبيرٌ بِما يَصْنَعُونَ>[4]

Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their private parts; it is more virtuous for them. God is all-aware of what they do.

So, it’s not just women who have to be protective of their covering rather, men also have to guard themselves from temptations subjectively and objectively, and they both have to drop their gaze and not look at each other in a passionate way. These two commands are mutually mandated for both men and women.

But the question lies here: when and where in Quran did Allah SWT talk about Hijab for women and obliged it to such extant that we know, which is the whole body except the face and hands (and feet according to some scholars). Of course, the skill of extracting Islamic laws from Quran and tradition (Hadith) is not an easy job but we will try to simplify it as much as possible.

In Quran there are more than a dozen verses that directly addresses the covering of women which a few of them are as follows:

  1. <وَ قُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِناتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصارِهِنَّ وَ يَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَ لا يُبْدينَ زينَتَهُنَّ إِلاَّ ما ظَهَرَ مِنْها وَ لْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلى‏ جُيُوبِهِنَّ>[5]

And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their private parts; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their khimār over their breasts.

Four significant commands can be observed in the verse:

  • Lowering gaze: what does it mean? Quran interpreters suggest that lowering gaze is in order not to get attracted to male beauties and vice versa, basically not making that connection, hence, it prohibits staring at someone when looking is joint by lust.
  • Guarding private parts: which translates as chastity, avoiding adultery and fornication or any type of impious relationship, and jurisprudentially, protecting your sexual organs from being seen and the obligation to hide it.
  • Not displaying your beauties intentionally unless they are of the most apparent and rarely veiled ones. there is a bit of debate about whether the exception applies to face and the hands only or it transcends to feet as well, but what is clear – according to this verse – is that a woman cannot show her body nor her jewelry e.g. leg chain, necklace, bracelet, earrings and so on[6].
  • Drawing their Khimar over their ears, neck and breasts from foreign men[7].

Back in the pre-Islamic era, women used to wear headscarves which would be tied behind ears and allow to flow behind the back, in the front, women wore a tight vest which she left open exposing her neck and breasts. When Islam was spreading through the Arabian Peninsula, the foresaid verse was revealed asking women to use their scarves or garments to cover the breasts; the verse does not say anything about covering the face thus, face is an exception and can be shown.

  1. <يا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِأَزْواجِكَ وَ بَناتِكَ وَ نِساءِ الْمُؤْمِنينَ يُدْنينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلاَبِيبِهِنَّ ذلِكَ أَدْنى‏ أَنْ يُعْرَفْنَ فَلا يُؤْذَيْنَ وَ كانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَحيماً>[8]

O prophet! Enjoin your wives, your daughters, and the wives of believers that they should cast their outer garments over their selves. That is most convenient that they be distinguished and not be harassed.

The word ‘Jilbab’ mentioned in the verse, is somehow the equivalent of a Cloak or Overcoat that veils the whole body from head to toe. So, Allah SWT commands women of believers to cover their bodies with their garments in order to be recognized and not molested! The story behind it is that the women of the pre and early Islamic era used to get harassed when walking alone in the streets, especially in the midnight if they needed to relieve themselves! And because maids were dressed more freely than free women, they would be more assaulted. When Islam finally surpasses the borders of paganism and expands its realm throughout Mecca and Medina, Allah SWT – out of his mercy – demands the Muslima believers to cover their bodies more carefully to stay unharmed because the gangsters would realize that they’re Muslims or from a special tribe and don’t dare touching them.

  1. «إِذا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتاعاً فَسْئَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَراءِ حِجابٍ ذلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَ قُلُوبِهِنَّ»

When you ask them (the wives of prophet) for some utility, ask for it from behind a screen; this is for more purity of your hearts and theirs. 33:53

This verse is called “The Verse of Hijab” since the word Hijab is specifically exerted within its context. Of course, it should be taken into account that the word Hijab is not used in its Islamic terminology rather, in the literal definition and Islamic modest covering back in the early-Islamic era would be referred to as Satr (veil).

It is true that the actual meaning of the word Hijab is Barrier or Separator but when looking deep into it, you realize maybe the reason this word found its definition as the women’s veil is the philosophy of Hijab, which is stability in society and accordingly, providing people’s own security by placing a barrier between them.

HIJAB IN NARRATIONS

Hijab Extent

Nowadays, you can hear people questioning everything about Islam including Hijab and the way it should be practiced but, so far, we have established the logical, literal and Islamic arguments that strongly back our claim and pave the way for proving the obligation of Islamic modest covering. But why do we have to wear hijab to such a strict level (the whole body except face and hands up to wrists)? Alluding to the pre-mentioned verses of the holy Quran and interpretations given there, it is crystal clear that by putting on Khimar and Jilbab the whole body would be concealed although the most ordinarily-shown parts i.e. face and hands were cited as exceptions; moreover, plenty of narrations certify the notion. Hijab as we know it, is exactly what it was in the time of Prophet Muhammad and the infallible Imams (A.S).

  • عن عایشة ان اسماء بنت ابی بكر دخلت علی رسول اللّه صلی الله علیه و آله و علیها ثیاب رقاق. فاعرض عنها رسول اللّه صلی الله علیه و آله و قال: یا اسماء، ان المرأة اذا بلغت المحیض لم تصلح ان یری منها الی هذا و هذا. و اشار الی وجهه و كفه.[9]

It is narrated by Ayesha that one day Asma the daughter of Abu-Bakr came to the Prophet while she was wearing a thin dress, the Prophet of Allah turned away from her and said: O Asma, when a woman reaches maturity, it is not right to be seen from her more than this and this. And He pointed to his face and hands.

  • عن الفضیل بن یسار قال: سالت ابا عبدالله (علیه‌السلام) عن الذراعین من المراة اهما من الزینة التی قال الله تبارک و تعالی و لا یبدین زینتهن الا لبعولتهن قال: نعم و ما دون الخمار من الزینة و ما دون السوارین.[10]

Al-Fuḍail bin Yasār who is one of the companions of Imam Sadiq A.S says: I asked Imam Sadiq A.S about women’s forearms, whether they are of the ornaments mentioned in the word of Allah SWT: (they should not display their beauty and ornaments except to their husbands 24:31)? He responded: Yes, and also what is under Khimar.

Clearly, Imam Sadiq A.S is delineating that forearm and what’s under a woman’s scarf i.e. the head, neck, shoulders and breasts are all pointed out in the verse.

  • قال: سمعت جعفرا و سئل عما تظهر المراة من زینتها قال: الوجه و الکفین.[11]

It is narrated by one of the companions of Imam Sadiq A.S: when He was asked about the ornaments a woman can display, He said: the face and hands.

WORDS OF JURISPRUDENTS (MUJTAHIDIN)

Grand Ayatollah Sistani

The concept of Hijab is one of the incontrovertible principles of Islam and is in the Holy Quran.

Grand Ayatollah Khamenei

The concept of Hijab is of the incontrovertible principles and disregarding and not practicing it, is considered transgression and sin.

Grand Ayatollah Makarem

Yes, Hijab is incontrovertible but denying it by one who is not aware of its incontrovertibility will not mean heresy.

Other maraja such as Grand Ayatollah Vahid-Khorasani, Bahjat and Safi have similar words concerning the issue, so we can conclude that Hijab in a well-accepted agreed upon rule which can’t be questioned nor doubted.

But how about the extent of Hijab? Are all scholars also united behind that?

FATWA OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS ON THE EXTENT OF HIJAB

Grand Ayatollah Sistani

It’s mandatory for a woman to cover her entire body with cloths which are not considered adornment from the eyes of Na-Mahram men with the exception of her face and hands up to wrists.

Grand Ayatollah Khamenei

Women, other than face the part of which they wash in Wudhu and hands from tip of the fingers up to wrists, must cover their further parts of their body from Na-Mahram.

Grand Ayatollah Vahid-Khorasani

A woman must cover her hair and body from Na-Mahram (covering the front of feet is also Wajib) unless in emergencies such as seeing a male doctor where she could not find a female one as proficient.

Grand Ayatollah Makarem

It is mandatory for girls and women to cover their entire body other than face and hands up to wrists from Na-Mahram men and this amount can do with any none-embellishing dress that is not tight or clinging.

HIJAB IN PRAYER

Coming to the conclusion that veiling the whole body for women is obligatory, one might ask: then why do we need to wear Hijab even in Sala (prayer)?!

We need to table some preliminary facts to answer this question:

The actual reasons of the rules of Allah SWT is hidden from us although we can use conjecture to speculate the logic behind some rules but we can never be absolutely certain about it unless God Himself or His representators decide to tell us why they have commanded so. Take the daily prayers for example, no one really knows why is it mandated five times per day or why the Maqrib prayer consists of three Rakàs while Duhr has four; or even why do we have two Sojud (prostration) for every one Rokù. The same goes with any Divine law.

In fact, if we knew the reason behind all the commands of Allah SWT no one could ever differentiate righteous from evil as everyone would execute the commands of God out of self-love not submission to His grace while our religion literally mean submission, the word “Islam” means submission, and your value elevates when you accept it because God has said so not because it brings abundance in your life or helps your wellbeing what have you. And here is where most of us stumble.

Veiling also has the same story, the genuine reason behind it is not totally clear although due to many narrations from Ahlulbeyt A.S and verses of the Holy Quran we can get a sense that the why of Hijab lies in the differences innately rooted between genders as we briefly mentioned previously in The Logical Arguments Of Hijab; what’s obvious and anyone would agree with subconsciously, is that Hijab is the manifestation of humility and modesty, and characteristics like these are always admirable so, as for the fact that prayer is the representation of getting in contact with the Glorious Majestic Creator, the more pious and submissive you be, the more His Holy blessings will shower upon you, in addition to that, we have already came into the conclusion that Hijab portrays modesty then it would be reasonable that Allah wants women to wear it when they come to Him. But if so, how come men don’t need to veil in prayers? The answer is obvious, veiling for men isn’t a manifestation of their modesty, at least to the extent women wear it, but that doesn’t mean that men don’t have any kind of Hijab. Scholars believe that men also need to cover their body in front of women with the exception of their hands, head and feet thus, in prayer they should do the same when a Na-Mahram woman is around, but with the absence of Na-Mahram, they have to cover the whole part between the belly button and knees even if they are alone. Again, it comes back to the philosophy of Hijab and respect in worship.

SOCIALLITY AND HIJAB

Is Hijab against sociality of women? Better to say: Is modesty against sociality? Frankly speaking, not all religious people are social but that does not mean religion prescribes antisocialism just as terror acts by so-called Muslim militia is not an indication of terrorism in the religion of Islam. Thus, in order to see whether Islam in really for or against the sociality of women, we need to dig into the Islamic resources and find out what do prophet and Imams articulate.

Scholars say when a woman wants to talk to Na-Mahram, she should avoid any flirtatious words or movements and try to keep it as formal as possible; it means we cannot be assured whether Islam is completely for or against social encounter of women and their presence in society, on one hand it commands women to stay modest and not to attract the opposite genderin any way and on the other hand, it doesn’t ban their presence in community at all hence, history bears witness that women were totally counted in the time of Prophet Muhammad PBUH and The Infallible Imams A.S; lectures of Lady Fatima and Zeinab (Prophet’s Daughter and Granddaughter), the business caravan of Lady Khadija (Prophet’s First Wife), women’s presence in some wars and many other examples brightly portray the sociality of women and their presence in society. So, how do we put these together?

The answer is that Islam is not straightly for or against women’s sociality, it’s against the harmful type of their presence in society. Not harmful in the sense where their presence does not carry out any threat to themselves and the people of the society at large. Islam has prescribed a number of ways that typically prevent those harms from affecting the society; you already know what those ways are, Hijab, Humility in speech and behavior, Piety in interaction with others and so on and so forth.

Accordingly, if a woman wants to work outside or take part in a march or even work out in the gym, it is all okay as long as the prementioned conditions are well executed, so if she puts on sportwear in the gym that is tight and reveal the contour of her body, either she should quit it or take a looser dress.

PHYSIOLOGICAL BENEFITS

It is approved that mind tranquility of both men and women are firmly depended on whatever they voluntarily or involuntarily see in the society. Human’s further thought processes, development of new ideas, decision making and the physical actions, or outputs are all based on their inputs via sensory modalities, such as eyes that have the 80% share of all.[12] Accordingly hijab, i.e. modest dress, has a straight influence on men’s and women’s mind and feelings.

An abundance of redundant provocative stimuli from the visual system, will blemish the mind tranquility and concentration of individuals. Consequently, vulnerable individuals, and young and immature minds that lack appropriate training and self-control, cannot handle the situation[13] and will be destructively affected; furthermore, they will be automatically prone to give anomalous outputs.

In the Holy Quran, Almighty Allah says, “And when you ask [his wives] for something, ask them from behind a partition. That is purer for your hearts and their hearts.”[14] In this verse Hijab is introduced as a factor and cause of “heart purity”. It is beyond question that the word “heart” does not mean the bodily organ. By referring to other verses it can mean as center of understanding (7:179, 6:25, 17:46 and 18:57) or thinking (22:46 and 47:24). So absolutely it is said Islamic modest dress will reinforce thought and reason due to purification, and thus will deter sensual acts.

In addition, women by wearing an unprovocative, loose and simple dress that perfectly hides their body contours, will feel more relaxed because they will get rid of competition in showing their bodies and being judged by others’ eyes. Hijab also strengthens their self-confidence in the society due to being behaved and judged through their personality and ability not their appearance and body.

On the whole, Islamic modest dress code is a wise divine order and is issued from the side of One who knows all aspects of human mentality and sense. Thus, it applies human calmness and tranquility and is completely conformed to their necessities.

SOCIAL BENEFITS

Islamic modest dress code not only is advantageous for the society, but also grants social benefits to women themselves. Hijab prevents the normalization of relations between men and women so that individuals’ presence in the society will not be deviated from its normal and required direction.

It is common knowledge that solidarity and stability of family institution, as a first society that individuals mostly experience, is straightly impressed by deviation of its members. Due to the normalization of relations between men and women in the society, family members would meet their emotional needs outside the family. Eventually it will lead to discouragement and frustration amongst couples and will pave the way for other family members’ deviation.[15]

Hijab also will reduce crimes against women. Today scientists of victimology believe certain victim attributes and behaviors can increase or even be related directly to an individual’s risk for violent victimization.[16] According to the law if a victim provokes the guilty one to commit a crime against them, then they will be considered as “an accomplice to the crime” and the punishment of the guilty one will be decreased.[17] Owing to crime prevention, scientists try to identify particular behaviors or activities that are linked to an increased risk for violent crime.[18]

As is mentioned earlier the effect of covering on psychological reactions of human is undeniable, so Islamic modest covering can be counted as a reducing factor of crimes against women. It is clearly mentioned in the Noble Quran, chapter al-‘Aḥzāb, “O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.”[19]

SOME RECENT QUESTIONS

Is It Against Women’s Freedom?

According to Islamic thought the word freedom is defined as ‘the absence of barriers’ so free persons are those who do not submit to obstacles and fight against all hindrances set in their way of growth and perfection. This right can be scrutinized from two aspects; social freedom and spiritual freedom.[20] Islam considers men and women equal in both aspects, although they are not similar due to their different creations.[21]

It is assumed that hijab is a barrier to Muslim women succeeding in society. Social activities can be divided into two categories; physical and intellectual. Unquestionably intellectual activities such as education, research, teaching, etc. are not involved or connected with covering, but there are some buts and ifs about physical activities namely sports.

Islam places no restriction on physical activity by women, in fact it encourages them.[22] According to Islamic modest dress code, there are some limitations regarding women’s sports. For instance, women need restricted locations and their matches are not broadcasted lively. Now the question is, whether these limitations are really a barrier in their way of growth and perfection or not?

One of duties of Islamic government is to prepare the infrastructures and prerequisites of people’s growth and perfections. There is no difference between men and women herein. In the history we can find a trace of such codes in the Islamic government of Imam Ali (peace be upon him). After the battle of Jamal, Imam Ali (pbuh) primed a group of forty horse rider women and ordered them to wear turban and be equipped with sword in order to accompany Aisha from Basra to Madinah.[23] Doubtlessly only a well-trained woman can go for a 432-kilometer trek as a guard for an important political personality.

Why Some Are Taking It Off?

Hijab is a need of a sound human instinct and a social law in Islamic Republic of Iran, nevertheless some women do not observe it. It might be said that these all are due to westernization, but through a more accurate glance at it, some other factors will be figured out, such as cultural, mental and biological, social, and political factors.

Cultural Factors

Certainly, knowledge, faith and social norms are significant cultural components that influence individuals covering. Lack of knowledge about the philosophy of hijab is one of main reasons that cause people show unconcern or even enmity towards hijab, as Imam Ali (pbuh) said, “People are enemies of that which they are ignorant about.”[24]

The faith _which includes having faith in Allah, The Day of Resurrection and truthfulness of prophets and Imams (pbuth) _ is a means of self-control. A field research has shown, 83% of cases who did not respect their hijab had weak religious beliefs.[25] Obviously individuals with strong faith would not be easily affected by wrong social suggestions, such as western culture that can reverse social norms like hijab over time.

Mental and Biological Factors

They include mental and biological natural needs that are mostly common amongst humans, such as boast and preening, seeking others’ praise and admiration, awaking the opposite sex’s interest, asserting and distinguishing themselves, etc. According to the psychologists, these are natural in the genital concealment level that teenagers are diagnosing their sexual identity; but indulging in fulfilling these needs would discontinue the natural personality development and they will stick to this level of drawing others’ attention to themselves.[26]

Social Factors

Family and educational environments are two main societies that every person is influenced by. Parents as cores of family institution have straight effect on children’s covering style. According to a research in Iran, lack of observing hijab is directly proportional to parents’ income and university education, but inversely proportional to their religious approach and seminary education. It also shows, family conflicts and employment of mothers has negative effects on children attitude towards hijab.[27]

In educational environments, not only the course materials are effective, but also the peer pressure is a powerful motive for teenagers in their trends towards covering. Statistics display approximate 70 to 73% of youths liken their clothing style to their peer groups’, especially in terms of observing hijab.[28]

Political Factors

Some people have political motivation for taking their hijab off. They demonstrate their protest and opposition against the existence of the ruling system through social behaviors. Since political and social ruling is held by religious currents, they put away religious symbols, specifically hijab, in order to take a stand against them.[29] Furthermore according to surveys, 66% of women cited, opposition to the compulsory hijab law itself is a reason for some people not to observe the hijab.[30]

Why Hijab Is Targeted by Some Western Politicians?

Hijab as a political symbol of Muslims and revolutionaries has been targeted by arrogant and colonialist governments such as the US, UK, French and Germany. They adopt multi-thousand-dollar budgets annually for soft war i.e. to weaken the family foundation, divert youths’ attention away from essential matters and entertain them with erotic issues, to finally exploit their neglect and hold their society in the palm of their hand. Similar to what happened in Andalusia (ancient Spain).

FINAL WORD

In conclusion, we should reflect upon the fact that our mothers and sisters struggle a great deal in order to uphold teachings of the Ahlulbeyt A.S and walk in their footsteps. Facing bigotry and ridicule from islamophobes and atheists, being looked down upon for their appearance and not meeting societal beauty standards and even maintaining it in scorching summers are a few of the difficulties that they have to live through.

Yet in the midst of all this, it is almost as if Lady Fatima A.S herself is leading these women by the hand and reminding them of the Prophet’s blessed words:

اکثر اهل الجنة النساء

“The majority of those in paradise are women.”

Therefore, the least we (as men) can do is to respect Muslim women and honor their endeavor, the Hijabi ones in particular.

We should see them as our own sisters and sympathize with what they’re going through and support them in the insightful journey especially those who are part of the western society in which growing and reminding pious requites greater and more constant training of the self.

finally, the gist of this paper would be concluded in the fact that Hijab is not merely a social necessity but Islam also sanctifies it so wear it like a flag of success.

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References

  • Holy Quran
  • Nahj al-Balāgha
  • Haydari, Mohsen Reza, Hijab, a scientific view, n.d.
  • McCue, Colleen, “Behavioral Analysis of Violent Crime”, in Data Mining and Predictive Analysis (Second Edition): 2015. (https://bit.ly/34KSXSK)
  • Yasser Abuzadeh Gotaabi, The nuclear family in Islam and Christianity, Mashhad: Qods Cultural Institute, 2019 C.E./1440 A.H.
  • Mutahhari, Murtadha, Azadi Ma’navi (Spiritual Freedom), Qom: Sadra, 1378 A.H. (solar)/ 2000 C.E.
  • Mutahhari, Murtadha, Nezam-e Hoghugh-e Zan dar Islam (The System of Women’s Rights in Islam), Qom: Sadra, 1376 A.H. (solar)/ 1998 C.E.
  • Leeds, Michael; Leeds, Eva Marikova, Handbook on the Economics of Women in Sports, Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013.
  • Ibn Qatībah Dīniwarī, ‘Abdullāh ibn Muslim, al-‘Imāmah wa al-Sīyāsah, research: Shiri, Ali, Beirut: Dār al-‘Aḍwā’, first public, 1410 A.H. / 1990 C.E.
  • Mahini, Ensieh; Khosropanah, Abdulhussain, “Methods of Promoting Islamic Covering amongst Female Students”, Marefat dar Daneshgah-e Eslami, (Autumn) 43, Vol. 13, No. 3, (2009): 53-81.
  • Sharafoddin, Hossein, “Sociological Rooting of taking the hijab off”, Fiqh-e now Quarterly Journal, (Spring and Summer) 14, No. 51-52, 1386 A.H. (solar)/ 2008 C.E.
  • Rajabi, Abbas,Hijab wa Naghsh-e An dar Salamat-e Ravan, Qom: Educational and Research Institute of Imam Khomeini, fourth edition, 1387 A.H. (solar)/ 2009 C.E.
  • AL-Ḥur al-‘Āmilī, Muḥammad Ibn Ḥasan (1409 A.H. /1988) Wasā’il al-Shī’ah, Qum: Āl al-Bayt.
  • Al-Kulaynī, Muḥammad Ibn Ya’qūb (1365 A.H. (solar)/1986) Al-Kāfī, Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyah.

[1]. It should be taken into account that Hijab isn’t just about how a woman should dress but, also the way she speaks, walks, and interacts with others. This paper will not address all these issues and the main focus is on the way of dressing.

[2]. this statement needs quite an explanation to be clarified but in short, it is our Innate Human Nature (Fitrah) that seeks eternal success. These basic understandings are called Vijdaniiat in Islamic philosophy.

[3]. Look up the concept of Jabr and Tafwidh (freewill).

[4]. Quran 24:30

[5]. Quran 24:31

[6] It should be noted that fatwas of Maraje differ in rings, especially wedding rings, so kindly refer to Risala (the book of Islamic laws) of your chosen Marja for further information.

[7]. None-Mahram (Muharram)[Marriageable men/women; those who one can marry them according to the Quran definition, that clarifies unmarriageable kin, verse 23 of chapter al-Nisā’].

[8]. Quran 33:59.

[9].سنن ابی داود، ج2، ص383 Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Vol. 2, P. 383.

[10].کلینی، محمد بن یعقوب، اصول کافی، ج5، ص520 521، باب ما یحل النظر الیه من المرأۀ. Al-Kulaynī, Muḥammad Ibn Ya’qūb, Al-Kāfī, Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyah, 1365 A.H. (solar)/ 1986, Vol. 5, P. 520 and 521, Chapter “What is permitted to be seen from a woman’s body”.

[11].عاملی، شیخ حر، وسائل الشیعة، ج20، ص203، باب ما یحل النظر الیه من المرأة بغیر تلذذ AL-Ḥur al-‘Āmilī, Muḥammad Ibn Ḥasan, Wasā’il al-Shī’ah, Qum: Āl al-Bayt, 1409 A.H. / 1988, Vol. 20, P. 203, Chapter “What is permitted to be seen from a woman’s body without pleasure”.

[12]. Haydari, Mohsen Reza, Hijab, a scientific view, n.d.

[13]. Ibid

[14]. (33:53) وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ

[15]. Abuzadeh Gotaabi, Yasser, The nuclear family in Islam and Christianity, Mashhad: Qods Cultural Institute, 2019 C.E./1440 A.H.

[16].McCue, Colleen, “Behavioural Analysis of Violent Crime”, in Data Mining and Predictive Analysis (Second Edition): 2015 (https://bit.ly/3cu3pRd)

[17].https://bit.ly/2RR49rP

[18]. Colleen, 2015.

[19]. (33:59) یا أَیهَا النَّبِی قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَ بَنَاتِكَ وَ نِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ یدْنِینَ عَلَیهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِیبِهِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَیٰ أَن یعْرَفْنَ فَلَا یؤْذَینَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَّحیمًا

[20]. Mutahhari, Murtadha, Azadi Ma’navi (Spiritual Freedom), Qom: Sadra, 1378 A.H. (solar)/ 2000 C.E, P. 13.

[21]. Mutahhari, Murtadha, Nezam-e Hoghugh-e Zan dar Islam (The System of Women’s Rights in Islam), Qom: Sadra, 1376 A.H. (solar)/ 1998 C.E, P. 124.

[22].Leeds, Michael and Leeds, Eva Marikova, Handbook on the Economics of Women in Sports, Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, P. 66.

[23]. Ibn Qatībah Dīniwarī, ‘Abdullāh ibn Muslim, al-‘Imāmah wa al-Sīyāsah, research: Shiri, Ali, Beirut: Dār al-‘Aḍwā’, first public, 1410 A.H./ 1990 C.E, Vol. 1, P. 98.

[24]. Nahj al-Balāgha, Saying No. 172  النَّاسُ أَعْدَاءُ مَا جَهِلُوا

[25].Mahini, Ensieh; Khosropanah, Abdulhussain, “Methods of Promoting Islamic Covering amongst Female Students”, Marefat dar Daneshgah-e Eslami, (Autumn) 43, Vol. 13, No. 3, (2009), P. 61.

[26]. Ibid, P. 62.

[27]. Ibid, P. 63.

[28]. Sharafoddin, Hossein, “Sociological Rooting of taking the hijab off”, Fiqh-e now Quarterly Journal, (Spring and Summer) 14, No. 51-52, (1386 A.H. (solar)/ 2008 C.E.).

[29]. Mahini, Ensieh; Khosropanah, Abdulhussain, P. 65.

[30]. Rajabi, Abbas, Hijab wa Naghsh-e An dar Salamat-e Rawan, Qom: Educational and Research Institute of Imam Khomeini, fourth edition, 1387 A.H. (solar)/ 2009 C.E, P. 166.

The article was written by Taha Ramzi and Z. Fallah.

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