Marja’ is a mujtahid who is followed by a number of the Shi’as, that is, some Shi’as practice their religious acts in accordance with that of mujtahid’s jurisprudential views (that is, fatwas) and pay their judicial alms (al-wujuhat) to him or his representatives. To follow a religious scholar in this way is called “taqlid”.
Marja’iyya is the most important social and religious position in the Shiite community. Marja’ is a mujtahid who is followed by a number of the Shi’as, that is, some Shi’as practice their religious acts in accordance with that of mujtahid’s jurisprudential views (that is, fatwas) and pay their judicial alms (al-wujuhat) to him or his representatives. To follow a religious scholar in this way is called “taqlid”.
The extent of the social influence of a Marja’ depends on the number of his followers. The financial power of a Marja’ is reinforced by the judicial alms paid by his followers. Shiite authorities can spend these financial resources in religious propagation, administration of Islamic Seminaries, helping people in need, and public services.
Conditions of Marja’iyya
A mujtahid can qualify as a marja’ if it is permissible to follow his fatwas, that is, to act upon his jurisprudential views. To qualify for this, the mujtahid should meet some requirements the most important of which is that he should be superior to other qualified mujtahids with regard to his scholarship in fiqh. Other conditions include justice, being a man, maturity, and sanity.
Procedures of Selection
A Marja’ is not selected by appointment. A person becomes a Shiite authority when the Shi’as accept him as an authority. In essays of fatwas (al-rasa’il al-‘amaliyya), some ways are introduced for finding out about a person who is qualified for Marja’iyya: personal knowledge, judicial evidence (that two qualified persons testify that someone is A’lam—superior in scholarship), being well-known as A’lam, or being introduced by a group of scholars such that their views lead to personal knowledge.
The most important task of a Marja’ is to issue fatwas for his followers in religious matters. However, Marja’iyya is not restricted to issuing fatwas. Shiite authorities are usually well-known teachers of Islamic seminaries, and Islamic seminaries are administered under their supervision.
The institution of Marja’iyya is financially dependent on judicial alms, people’s donations, and personal vows.
The Influence of Marja’iyya
Shiite authorities usually have a strong influence on their followers and even all the Shi’as, and thus, they can establish their social and political views. For example, after the fatwa of Sayyid Muhammad Mujahid, a great number of the Shi’as went to war against the Russians; the fatwa of the tobacco ban by Mirza Shirazi led to the abolishment of the tobacco monopoly in Iran; and June 5, 1963 Demonstrations in Iran to protest the arrest of Ayatollah Khomeini.
According to the Sunni scholar, Muhammad Rashid Rida, no Sunni scholar has had the influence of Shiite mujtahids—especially those educated in the Islamic seminary of Najaf—neither alone nor collectively. He mentions as examples the boycott of elections in Iraq in the period of the King Faisal and the tobacco ban by Mirza Shirazi. Samuel Benjamin, a US envoy to Iran, said that the most important mujtahid in Tehran commutes with a mule and has only one servant, but he can end a king’s throne with one word.
Historical Periods of Marja’yya
For Shiite Marja’iyya (religious authority) to gain grounds, it had to live through a variety of circumstances that guaranteed its success or, on occasions, failure. From governmental interventions, ethnic tendencies, political events, possibility of access to/with people to strength or weakness of Islamic seminaries. The history of the Shiite Marja’iyya can be divided into nine periods.
Before the 13th/19th Century
Rasul Ja’fariyan takes the recent period of Marja’iyya to begin with al-Wahid al-Bihbahani who had an authority in scholarship, rather than the administration of the Shiite affairs, that is, it was not the case that the majority of the Shi’as followed him. Before this period, the Shi’as usually acted upon the fatwas of some local scholars, and thus, there was no Marja’ followed by the majority of the Shi’as in the world.
The Beginning of Marja’iyya with Sahib al-Jawahir
According to some researchers, the period of a global, influential Marja’iyya for the Shi’as began in the Islamic Seminary of Najaf with Muhammad Hasan al-Najafi, known as “Sahib al-Jawahir” (d. 1266/1849). He did not require ijtihad for judges, and thus, he permitted that a judge adjudicates on the basis of the fatwas of a mujtahid. Many of his students went back to Iran and served as propagators of his Marja’iyya and fatwas.
After Sahib al-Jawahir, the Shiite Marja’iyya was still based in Iraq and the Islamic Seminary of Najaf. The most influential authorities in this period include Shaykh Murtada Ansari (d. 1281/1864) and Muhammad Hasan Shirazi (d. 1312/1896) who issued the fatwa of the tobacco ban.
The Persian Constitutional Movement led to obvious interventions of Shiite authorities in political affairs. Akhund Khurasani and Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, the author of al-‘Urwat al-wuthqa, were crucial figures in the movement both of whom were Najaf-based Iranians. However, they had opposing views about the Constitutional Movement. Khurasani issued the Constitutional fatwa, and Yazdi opposed it.
In 1337/1918 when ‘Abd al-Karim al-Ha’iri al-Yazdi moved to Qom, a new period of the Islamic Seminary of Qom began. Sayyid al-Yazdi died in the same year. When the Islamic Seminary of Qom was taking shape and Sayyid al-Yazdi and Shaykh al-Shari’a Isfahani (d. 1339/1920) died, part of the Shiite authority moved to Iran along with al-Ha’iri himself. Sayyid Husayn Burujirdi’s migration to Qom in 1363/1943 and his activities led to the burgeoning of the Islamic Seminary of Qom. After the death of Sayyid Abu l-Hasan al-Isfahani (d. 1946) who lived in Najaf, Burujirdi was the prominent Shiite authority until 1961.
After the death of Ayatollah Burujirdi, Marja’iyya was not passed on to a single person. It was provided by a number of Shiite authorities in Iran and Iraq at this period. Although in the early years of this period, Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim (d. 1390/1970) in Najaf was more outstanding than others, late in this period of 33 years, Sayyid Ruh Allah Khomeini (d. 1409/1989), the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, turned into the most widely accepted Shiite authority in Iran and Sayyid Abu l-Qasim Khu’i turned into the most influential Najaf-based Shiite authority.
After the death of Sayyid Abu l-Qasim Khu’i in 1413/1992, the global Shiite authority was concentrated in Qom for three years. This was because of the death of Shiite authorities in Najaf, the deportation of many Iranian scholars from the Islamic Seminary of Najaf, and the restrictions imposed by the ruling Ba’ath Party in Iraq. The compulsory migration of Najaf-based Iranian scholars led to the thriving of the Islamic Seminary of Qom and the weakness of the Islamic Seminary of Najaf. In this rather short period, Sayyid Muhammad Rida Gulpayigani and Muhammad ‘Ali Araki were the most prominent Shiite authorities.
The period of the contemporary Marja’iyya began after the death of Muhammad ‘Ali Araki (1415/1994). In this period, a number of mujtahids in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Pakistan have been the Shiite authorities.
Marja’iyya in Iraq
The global concentrated Marja’iyya began in the Islamic Seminary of Najaf in the 13th/19th century with Sahib al-Jawahir and Shaykh Murtada Ansari. Since then, Shiite authorities were always based in Iraq, and in particular, in Najaf. In addition to Najaf, some Shiite authorities resided in Karbala. In the period of Mirza Shirazi, the Shiite authority moved to Samarra. Akhud Khurasani, Sayyid Kazim Yazdi, and Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani were Shiite authorities in Najaf. In the years 1365/1945 – 1380/1960, the Shiite authority was concentrated in Ayatollah Burujirdi in Qom, but at the same time, Sayyid Muhsin Hakim (d. 1970) and Sayyid Mahmud al-Husayni al-Shahrudi (d. 1974) were followed by some Shiite populations. When Ayatollah Burujirdi died in 1961, Hakim, Shahrudi, and Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khu’i (d. 1992) undertook the Shiite authority in Najaf. Because of the long period between the deaths of Shahrudi and Khu’i, Ayatollah Khu’i turned into one of the most influential Shiite authorities. From 1965 to 1979, Ayatollah Sayyid Ruh Allah Khomeini was banished from Iran to Iraq and lived in Najaf.
In 1970s, the Iraqi government deported many Iraq-based Iranians which led to the compulsory migration of some teachers and students of the Islamic Seminary of Najaf to Iran, and in particular, to the Islamic Seminary of Qom. (See: al-Mu’awidun) After the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the crackdowns of the Islamic Seminary of Najaf by the Ba’ath Government, the future of Marja’iyya changed. Marja’iyya has become more concentrated in Iran ever since.
After 1991 Uprisings in Iraq, the Iraqi government increased the crackdown on the Islamic Seminary of Najaf. In the early years after the deaths of Khu’i and Muhammad ‘Ali Araki, two of Khu’i’s students (‘Ali Gharawi Tabrizi and Murtada Burujirdi), who were candidates for Marja’iyya, were assassinated and killed. After a while, Sayyid Muhammad al-Sadr, a student of Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, whose Marja’iyya was accepted by some Shi’as, was also killed. These assassinations and pressures practically isolated the Islamic Seminary of Najaf. However, part of the Shiite Marja’iyya have survived in Najaf.
After the Fall of the Ba’ath Regime
After the Second Iraq War (Persian Gulf War) in 2000, the regime in Iraq changed. In this period, the Islamic Seminary of Najaf was relieved from pressures, and students from other areas went to Najaf. Some teachers who were deported from Iraq for years returned to Iraq. One of the most influential Shiite authorities in Najaf is Sayyid ‘Ali al-Husayni al-Sistani, a student of Khu’i.
Marja’iyya In Iran
In the recent period, the Islamic Seminary of Qom was established after the migration of ‘Abd al-Karim al-Ha’iri al-Yazdi in 1340/1921. When he migrated to Qom, part of the Shiite authority moved to Iran. He was alive until 1937. After him, three prominent teachers of the Islamic Seminary of Qom administered the seminary: Sayyid Sadr al-Din Sadr, Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari, and Sayyid Muhammad Hujjat. None of them had a global authority, however. In this period, the Shiite authority was mainly concentered in the Islamic Seminary of Najaf, and in particular, Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani (d. 1365/1946).
In 1364/1945 at the request of a group of scholars in the Islamic Seminary of Qom, Sayyid Husayn Tabataba’i Burujirdi, a student of Akhund Khurasani, migrated to Qom. After Isfahani, he had a global, wide-ranging Marja’iyya. It can be said that late in his life, there was no other influential authority in Iraq or Iran.
Burujirdi’s presence in Qom led to the thriving of the Islamic Seminary of Qom. After his death, a number of mujtahids were introduced as Shiite authorities. Other than Ayatollah Milani in Mashhad, Iran-based authorities resided in Qom. Here are the most important figures: Sayyid Ahmad Khwansari (d. 1985), Sayyid Kazim Shari’atmadari (d. 1986), Sayyid Ruh Allah Khumayni (d. 1989), Sayyid Shahab al-Din Mar’ashi Najafi (d. 1990), and Sayyid Muhammad Rida Gulpayigani (d. 1993). Two days after the death of Ayatollah Burujirdi, Kayhan newspaper published a list of some Shiite mujtahids who were possible candidates for Marja’iyya.
In 1994, Muhammad ‘Ali Araki, the last living student of ‘Abd al-Karim Ha’iri Yazdi, died. Since then, a number of mujtahids most of whom were students of Burujirdi and Khu’i were introduced as Shiite authorities. Although some of them have more followers than others, none of them has a global Marja’iyya. Here are the best-known living authorities (alive until May, 2017): Husayn Wahid Khurasani, Lutf Allah Safi Gulpayigani, Sayyid Musa Shubayri Zanjani, Sayyid ‘Ali Khamenei, and Nasir Makarim Shirazi in Iran, and Sayyid ‘Ali Sistani in Iraq.