Abū Muḥammad Faḍl b. Shādhān b. Khalīl al-Azdī al-Nīshābūrī, (d. 260/873) was an Imami scholar of kalam and fiqh. In his al-Rijal, al-Shaykh al-Tusi mentioned Ibn Shadhan as a companion of Imam al-Hadi (a). He learned from masters such as Muhammad b. Abi 'Umayr (d. 217/832) in Baghdad and met...
Abū Muḥammad Ḥassan b. ʿAli al-Ḥadhāʾ al-ʿUmmānī or al-ʿAmmānī, known as Ibn Abī ʿAqīl was a Shi'a scholar of hadith, fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), and kalam (theology) in the fourth/tenth century during the Minor Occultation (al-ghayba al-sughra) (260/879-329/941 )...
Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. al-Junayd al-Kātib al-Iskāfī, known as Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskāfī, was an Imami scholar of fiqh and kalam in the fourth/tenth century. Ibn al-Junayd was born in Iskaf near Baghdad. He was a teacher of al-Shaykh al-Mufid. Ibn al-Junayd and Ibn Abi Aqil al-'Ummani are both called "al-Qadimayn" (that is, two ancient scholars of fiqh)...
In Islamic jurisprudence there are two terms used for hermaphrodites. One term refers to a hermaphrodite whose gender cannot be determined, meaning his biological sex is just as male as it is female. In this case, surgery can be performed and the parents of the child choose the...
The fourth/tenth century Shia theologian and jurist al-Shaykh al-Mufid discusses juristic authority in his main...