There were two types of ijāzas: an ijāza of ijtihād and an ijāza of riwaya. Modern researchers maintain that an ijāza of ijtihād permitted the holder to exercise ijtihād, and that attaining the ijaza was a prerequisite to...
Taqleed is the following, by a lay person, of a Jurist in matters of religious practice. Thus, you apply the Jurist’s legal opinion (fatwa). It is as if you have put the responsibility squarely on the Jurist’s shoulders, in that he will stand accountable before Allah insofar as your compliance with...
The following translated passages come from a larger work in Arabic by Sayyid Muḥammad Saeed al-Ḥakim in which he...
It is important to mention a basic thing that blindly following the views and manners of anyone completely is...
In this article the writer intend to consider briefly the concept, definition, and types of ijtihad and then examine briefly the criteria and justification of takhti’ah and taswib according to both Shi‘a and...
This paper analyses the reconceptualization of Islamic law and authority as defined by Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari the influential scholar and first sole supreme exemplar of the...
Taqlid literally means “to follow (someone)”, “to imitate”. In Islamic legal terminology it means to follow a...
The necessary conditions to be available in a leader are directly connected to the nature of the Islamic government. Disregarding...
Martyr Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr was a notable Shia cleric, philosopher, and ideological founder of the Iraq Islamic Dawa Party
This book, which is edited by Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke, is concerned with religious authorities, men and women claiming, projecting and exerting religious authority within a given context. Who speaks for Islam? To whom do Muslims turn when they look for guidance? To what extent do individual scholars and ...