In this article the writer intend to consider briefly the concept, definition, and types of ijtihad and then examine briefly the criteria and justification of takhti’ah and taswib according to both Shi‘a and...
This paper analyses the reconceptualization of Islamic law and authority as defined by Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari the influential scholar and first sole supreme exemplar of the...
Taqlid literally means “to follow (someone)”, “to imitate”. In Islamic legal terminology it means to follow a...
The necessary conditions to be available in a leader are directly connected to the nature of the Islamic government. Disregarding...
Martyr Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr was a notable Shia cleric, philosopher, and ideological founder of the Iraq Islamic Dawa Party
This book, which is edited by Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke, is concerned with religious authorities, men and women claiming, projecting and exerting religious authority within a given context. Who speaks for Islam? To whom do Muslims turn when they look for guidance? To what extent do individual scholars and ...
A glance at the political life on ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Behbahani a leading mojtahed of Tehran
Muslims do not believe in the conciliatory Ijtihad that sets out to justify the legal reality of many cases of deviation.