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Imamiyah (Shiite): An Introduction to Islamic Jurisprudential Sects

5- the most important Sources of Twelver Shi’as

5-1- Shi’a Jurisprudential Sources

5-1-1- the Sources of Āyāt al-Aḥkām (verses of the revealed prescripts)

–         Fiqh al-Qur’n, Quṭb al-Dīn Rāwandī, Sa‘īd b. ‘Abd Allah (d. 573 A. H.),

–         Kanz al-‘Irfān, al-Miqdād b. Abdu Allah Sīwarī, known as al-Fāḍil al-Miqdād, (d. 826 A. H.),

–         Zubdah al-Bayān fī Aḥkām al-Qur’n, Mawlá Ahmad b. Muhammad, known as Muqaddas Ardibīlī (d. 993 A.H.),

–         Durūs Tamhīdīyah fī Āyāt al-Aḥkām, Sheikh Bāqir Īrawānī,

–         Masālik al-Afhām fī Shar Āyāt al-Aḥkām, Sheikh Jawād b. Sa‘īd b. Jawād Kāzimī, known as Fāḍil Jawād (d. 1029 A. H.),

–         Āyāt al-Aḥkām, Kāzim Mudīr Shānichī,

–         Āyāt al-Aḥkām, ‘Abbās Ali ‘Amīd Zanjānī,

 

5-1-2- the Sources of Aḥādīth al-Aḥkām (Ḥadīths of the revealed prescripts)

–         Al-Kāfī, al-Kulaynī, Muhammad b. Ya‘qūb (d. 329 A.H.),

–         Man lā Yaḥḍarah al-Faqīh, al-Ṣadūq, Muhammad b. Ali b. Bābwayh (d. 381 A.H.),

–         Tahdhīb al-Aḥkām, al-Ṭūsī, Muhammad b. al-Ḥasan (d. 460 A.H.),

–         Al-Istibṣār fīmā Ikhtalafa min al-Akhbār, al-Ṭūsī, Muhammad b. al-Ḥasan (d. 460 A.H.),

–         Al-Wāfī, Kāshānī, Muhammad Muḥsin (d. 1091 A. H.),

–         Wasā’il al-Shi‘ah ilá Aḥkām al-Sharī‘ah, al-Ḥurr al-‘Āmilī, Muhammad b. Ḥasan (1104 A. H.),

–         Mustadrak al- Wasā’il wa Mustanbiṭ al-Masā’il, al-Nūrī, Ḥusein b. Muhammad (d. 1320 A. H.),

–         Jāmi‘ Aḥādīth al-Shi‘ah, under Ayatollah Brūjirdī’s supervision, and by some of his disciples, such as Sheikh Ismā‘īl Malāyirī,

 

5-1-3- the Sources of precepts of positive Law (issuing fatwas)

–         Al-Muqni‘ah, Mufīd, Muhammad b. Na‘mān Ḥārithī Baghdadi (d. 413 A.H.),

–         Jumal al-‘Ilm wa al-‘Amal, al-Sharīf al-Murtaḍā, Ali b. Ḥusein Mūsawī (d. 436 A.H.),

–         Al-Intiṣār, al-Sharīf al-Murtaḍā, Ali b. Ḥusein Mūsawī (d. 436 A.H.),

–         Kāfī, Abū al-Ṣalāḥ, Taqī al-Dīn b. Najm al-Dīn Abdu Allah Ḥalabī (d. 447 A. H.),

–         Marāsim al-‘Alawīyah, Sallār, Ḥamzah b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Daylamī (d. 433 A.H.),

–         Muhadhab, Ibn Barrāj, al-Qāḍī ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Ṭarāblusī,

–         Ghunyah al-Nuzū‘ ilá ‘ilmay al-Uūl wa al-Furū‘, Ibn Zuhrah, Abū al-Makārim Ḥamzah b. Ali Ḥuseinī Ḥalabī (d. 585 A.H.),

–         Al-Wasīlah ilá Nayl al-Faḍīlah, Ibn Ḥamzah, Muhammad b. Ali b. Ḥamzah Mashhadī,

–         Sharāyi‘ al-Islām fī Masā’il al-Ḥalāl wa al-arām, Muḥaqqiq Ḥillī, Ja‘far b. al-Ḥasan al-Hidhlī (d. 676 A.H.),

Many commentaries have been written on this book, such as:

§ Masālik al-Afhām, Shahīd al-Thānī, Zayn al-Dīn b. Ali ‘Āmilī (d. 966 A.H.),

§ Madārik al-Akām, Sayyid ‘Āmilī,

§ Muḥ al-Faqīh (a commentary on Sharāyi‘ al-Islām), al-Hamidānī, Riḥā b. Muhammad (d. 1322 A.H.)

–         Mukhtaar al-Nāfi‘, Muḥaqqiq Ḥillī, Ja‘far b. al-Ḥasan al-Hidhlī (d. 676 A.H.),

Some commentaries on the book:

§ Al-Mu‘tabar fī Sharḥ Mukhtaar al-Nāfi‘, Muḥaqqiq Ḥillī, Ja‘far b. al-Ḥasan al-Hidhlī (d. 676 A.H.),

§ Al- Tanqīḥ al-Rā’i‘ li Mukhtaar al-Nāfi‘, Sīwarī, Miqdād,

§ Qawā‘id al-Akām fī Ma‘rifah al-Ḥalāl wa al-arām, ‘Allāmah Ḥillī, Abū Manṣūr Ḥasan b. Yusuf (d. 726 A.H.),

§ Tabirah al-Muta‘allimīn fī Akām al-Dīn, ‘Allāmah Ḥillī,

–         Irshād al-Adhhān ilá Akām al-Īmān, ‘Allāmah Ḥillī,

–         Taḥrīr al-Akām al-Shar‘īyah ‘alá Madhhab al-Imāmīyah, ‘Allāmah Ḥillī,

–         Nihāyah al-Akām fī Ma‘rifah al-Akām, ‘Allāmah Ḥillī,

–         Al-Lum‘ah al-Damishqīyah fī Fiqh al-Imāmīyah, Shahīd Awwal, Muhammad b. Makkī ‘Āmilī (d. 786 A.H.),

–         Al-Rawḍah al-Bahiyah fī Shar Al-Lum‘ah al-Damishqīyah, Shahīd al-Thānī, Zayn al-Dīn Ali al-‘Āmilī (d. 966 A.H.),

–         Al-Durūs Shar‘īyah fī Fiqh al-Imāmīyah, Shahīd Awwal,

–         Dhikrá al-Shī‘ah fī Akām al-Shar‘īyah, Shahīd al-Awwal,

–         Mafātīḥ al-Sharāyi‘, Kāshānī, Muhammad b. Murtaḍá (d. 1091 A. H.). There are 27 commentaries on this book.

–         Nijāt al-‘Ibād fī Yawm al-Ma‘ād, Ṣāḥib Jawāhir, Sheikh Muhammad Ḥasan Najafī (d. 1266 A.H.),

–         Al-‘Urwah al-Wuthqá fīmā Ta‘am bi-hi al-Balwá, Yazdī, Muhammad Kāzim b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Ṭabāṭabā’ī (d. 1337 A.H.),

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