The legal-ethical dynamism in Islamic law which allows it to respond to the challenges of modernity is said to reside in the institution of ijtihād (independent legal thinking and hermeneutics). However, jurists like Mohsen Kadivar and Ayatollah Faḍlalla have argued that the “traditional ijtihād” paradigm has reached its limits of ...
It is famously held that the Third Testimony (Al-Shahāda al-Thālitha) entered the Shiite adhan since the Safavid era. However, there is evidence that it was recited in adhans prior to this era in different regions. For example...
Certain factors are at play for sighting the crescent on the first night of the month. These factors include “the time when the sun and the moon sets”, “the interval between the setting of the two”, “the coordinates of the sun and...
This collection of case studies, covering the period from classical Islam to the present, and taken from across the Shiʿi Islamic world, reflects on the roles that women have played in exercising religious authority across time and...
The present chapter introduces two Iranian female mujtahidahs, Nuṣrat Amīn (1886 - 1983) and Zuhrah Ṣifātī (1948 - ), who represent like few other contemporaries the status of female religious authority in 20th century Iran, divided by the...
“Khums” literally means “one-fifth” (or 20%). In Islamic legal terminology, it means “one-fifth of certain items which a person acquires as wealth, which must be paid as an Islamic tax”. The Qur’an mentions this tax in Surah Anfal verse number 41: “Know that whatever thing you acquire as profit, a fifth of it ...
In this essay, the writer examines one area of substantive law (furū' al-flqh) which figured prominently in the Akhbārī-Uṣūlī dispute in Shī̒̒'ī legal history: the legality of the marriage of one man to two women descended from the daughter of the...
Human cloning is of the issues that have recently come to the fore. As examining an issue in jurisprudence is impossible before shading light on its all corners, exploring its inner and outer aspects, and defining its good and bad consequences; the religious researchers and...
Religiously, death occurs when the soul departs from the body. If one acts righteously and adheres to his religious obligations his soul will be removed gently from his body, but if one fails to do so his soul will be...
One of the well-known Muslim schools of thought, also known as the 12er Shia school of thought, is the Jafari school of thought. The word ‘Jafar’ in ‘Jafari’ refers to the sixth blessed Imam of the Prophet’s family (AhlulBayt), peace be upon all of them. The martyrdom of...