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Tag Archives: Ijtihad

Islamic Shari’a Law, Neotraditionalist Muslim Scholars and Transgender Sex-Reassignment Surgery: A Case Study of Ayatollah Khomeini’s and Sheikh al-Tantawi’s Fatwas

By studying the fatwas, the paper analyzes the main juridical reasons behind the fatwas of Khomeini and Al-Tantawi, who might be called neotraditionalists, and the issuance of such progressive fatwas through their classical methodology of...

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Usul al-Fiqh and Ijtihad in Shi‘ism

This study demonstrates that in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Shi‘i scholars elaborated and developed a specific Shi‘i theory of ijtihad. This chapter traces the genesis and development of both ijtihad (reasoning) and usul al-fiqh (legal theory) in Shi‘i intellectual history. It argues that the concern for knowledge and certitude, …

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