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Ḥanbalīyah: An Introduction to Islamic Jurisprudential Sects

5- Ḥanbalī jurists and jurisprudential books

–         Ahmad b. Ḥanbal, founder of the school,

–         Khirqī, Abū al-Qāsim ‘Umar b. Ḥusein (d. 343 A.H.): al-Mukhtaṣar fī al-Fiqh,

–         Abū Ya‘lá (d. 458 A.H.): al-Aḥkām al-Sulṭānīyah, al-Mujarrad, al-Ta‘līq, al-Riwāyatayn,

–         Abū al-Khaṭṭāb Baghdādī=Maḥfūẓ b. Ahmad b. Ḥasan Kūdhānī (d. 516 A.H.): al-Hidāyah, al-‘Ibādāt al-Khams,

–         Ibn Qudāmah Muqaddasī=Muwaffaq al-Dīn Abū Muhammad ‘Abd Allah b. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Qudāmah b. Miqdām b. Naṣr (d. 620 A.H.): Al-Mughnī, (a great compilation regarding concurrent jurisprudence inclining to the Ḥanbalī jurisprudence, in 12 chapters), ‘Umdah al-Fiqh, al-Muqni‘, al-Sharḥ al-Kabīr ‘alá Matn al-Muqni‘, al-Kāfī fī Fiqh al-Imām Ahmad b. Ḥanbal,

–         Abū al-Wafā’ Ali b. ‘Aqīl b. Muhammad Baghdādī (d. 513 A.H.): al-Tadhkirah, al-Funūn ( his most voluminous book), al-Fuṣūl=Kifāyah al-Muftī,

–         ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b. Ibrāhīm b. Ahmad Abū Muhammad Bahā’ al-Dīn al-Muqaddasī (d. 624 A.H.): al-‘Uddah fī Sharḥ al-‘Umdah (it is a commentary on ‘Umdah al-Fiqh, by Ibn Qudāmah Muqaddasī),

–         Ibn Abī ‘Umar Shams al-Dīn Ibn Qudāmah (d. 682 A.H.): al-Sharḥ al-Kabīr,

–         Abū al-Barakāt ‘Abd al-Salām b. Abū al-Qāsim b. Taymīyah (d. 652 A.H.): al-Muharrar,

–         Zarkishī, Shams al-Dīn Muhammad b. ‘Abd Allah (d. 772 A.H.): Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar Khirqī,

–         Abū al-Faraj Zayn al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b. Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-Raḥmān, known as Ibn Rajab (d. 795 A.H.): al-Qawā‘id al-Fiqhīyah,

–         Ibn Mufliḥ/ grandchild (d. 884 A.H.): al-Mubdi‘ fī Sharḥ al-Muqni‘,

–         ‘Alā’ al-Dīn Mirdāwī, Ali b. Sulaymān Muqaddasī (d. 885 A.H.): al-Inṣāf fī Ma‘rifah al-Rājiḥ min al-Khilāf ‘alá Madhhab al-Imām Ahmad(a compilation of inter sect differences), al-Tanqīḥ al-Mushbi‘, Taṣḥīḥ al-Furū‘,

–         Mūsá b. Ahmad b. Mūsá Ḥajāwī Muqaddasī (d. 968 A.H.): al-Iqnā‘ fī Fiqh al-Imām Ahmad b. Ḥanbal, Zād al-Mustaqni‘,

–         Ibn Najjār, Muhammad   b. Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Futūḥī (d. 972 A.H.): Muntahá al-Irādāt fī Jam‘ al-Muqni‘ ma‘a al-Tanqīḥ wa al-Ziyādāt (it a reliable recent book of Ḥanbalīyah that is the base of issuing fatwas and judicial arbitrations),

–         Sheikh Mar‘ī b. Yūsuf Karamī (d. 1033 A.H.): Ghāyah al-Muntahá fī al-Jam‘ bayn al-Iqnā‘ wa al-Muntahá, Dalīl al-Ṭālib (an abridged of Muntahá al-Irādāt, Ibn Najjār),

–         Manṣūr b. Yūnus Bahūtī (d. 1051 A.H.): Kashshāf al-Qinā‘ ‘an Matn al-Iqnā‘ (al-Iqnā‘ is wrriten by Shams Ḥajāwī), al-Rawḍ al-Murabba‘ ( a commentary on Zād al-Mustaqni‘, Shams Ḥajāwī), Daqā’iq Awlá al-Nuhá al-Ma‘rūf (a commentary on Muntahá al-Irādāt), ‘Umdah al-Ṭālib (it is a short book),

–         ‘Uhmān Najdī (d. 1097 A.H.): Hidāyah al-Rāghib (a commentary on ‘Umdah al-Ṭālib, Bahūtī),

–         Mullā Ali Qārī (d. 1359 A.H.): Majallah al-Aḥkām al-Shar‘īyah

New Ḥanbalīs (Salafīyah)

–         Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-Ḥalīm b. ‘Abd al-Salām b. ‘Abd Allah, Taqī al-Dīn abū al-‘Abbās Namīrī ‘Āmirī known as Ibn Taymīyah, whose followers call him Sheikh al-Islam, too (d. 728 A.H.): Majmū‘ah al-Rasā’il al-Kubrá, al-Fatāwá al-Kubrá=Fatāwá Sheikh al-Islam (in five volumes),

–         Shams al-Dīn Ibn Qayyim Jawzī (d. 751 A.H.): I‘lām al-Mawqi‘īn ‘an Rabb al-‘Ālamīn (in four volumes), al-Ṭuruq al-Ḥikamīyah fī Siyāsah al-Shar‘īyah, Zād al-Ma‘ād fī Hudá Khayr al-‘Ibād,

 Endnotes

1- Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Wahhāb was born in 1115 A.H. in ‘Unīyah, Najd. He leaned Ḥanbalīyah, especially the opinions of Ibn Taymīyah and Ibn Qayyim Jawzīyah, in Damascus. Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhāb travelled to Baghdad and Baṣrah and then turned back with a new version of Ḥanbalīyah called as Wahhābīyah. He invited Muhammad b. Su‘ūd, who was ruling over the tribes of ‘Utūb and ‘Anzah, to Wahhābīyah. Ibn Su‘ūd accepted the cult of Wahhābīyah, and sat Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhāb’s ideas as an ideological standards of his government. He appointed Dur‘īyah as his seat of government, and waged many wars on neighboring cities to spread Wahhābīyah. People of Riyāḍ refused his call at that time, but after many years fighting were defeated, and Ibn Su‘ūd possessed Riyāḍ. His son, ‘Abd al-‘Azīz b. Su‘ūd, came in power after his death. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz, just like his father, struggled to spread Wahhābīyah and waged many wars. In 1215 A.H., 15000 Wahhābīs attacked Karbala for purifying this city from what they called as “polytheism symbols”. After plundering the treasury of Imam Hussein’s holy shrine, they destroyed it. Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Wahhāb’s ideas resulted in many blooding combats in Iraq, and murder of thousands of Shi’ites in Shi’a living regions of Iraq and Ṭā’if, as well as Sufi living areas in Iraqi Kurdistan and Turkey.

Wahhābīyah was pertaining to Su‘ūdī royal court sect during last 50 years. Later on, an extremist group called al-Qaida or Takfīrī Salafīs (Jihadi Salafīs) appeared and caused a schism in Wahhābīyah. Wahhābī great scholars, like ‘Abd al-‘Azīz b. Bāz and Ibn Jabrayn, called Shi’ites rāfiī (heretics) and allowed killing them. They regarde Shi’ites worse than followers of other religions, who may be killed and plundered with impunity. These fatwas terminated in the murder of thousands of Shi’a men, women, and even children in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Iran. The Wahhābīs living in India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, which form the central core of al-Qaida force, in fact, are the followers of Daywbandī Sunnite, but they are united with Su‘ūdī Wahhābīs by reason of opposing to religious rituals (such as visiting the dead, etc.) and hostility towards Shi’as.

2- His student, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hānī, known as Athram, the author of al-Sunan is famous, too.

3- Some other important jurists and jurisprudential books of Ḥanbalīyah are as follows:

–         Sharīf Hāshimī (d. 470 A.H.): al-Irshād,

–         Ibn Sunaynah Sāmirī, Naṣīr al-Dīn Muhammad b. ‘Abd Allah (d. 616 A.H.): al-Mustaw‘ab,

–         Ibn Ḥamdān Ḥarrānī (d. 695 A.H.): al-Ri‘āyah al-Kubrá, al-Ri‘āyah al-Ṣughrá,

–         Ibn Mufliḥ/ father (d. 763 A.H.): al-Furū‘, al-Nukat wa al-Fawā’id al-Sunnīyah ‘alá Mushkil al-Muḥarrar ( by ‘Abd al-Salām b. Taymīyah)

–         Shawwaykī, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ahmad (d. 939 A.H.): al-Tawḍīḥ fī al-Jam‘ bayn al-Muqni‘ wa al-Tanqīḥ,

–         Ibn Bulbulān (d. 1083 A.H.): Akhṣar al-Mukhtaṣirāt, Mukhtaṣar al-Ifādāt,

–         Shaybānī Taghlibī (d. 1135 A.H.): Nayl al-Maārib Sharḥ Dalīl al-Ṭālib,

–          ‘Abd al-Raḥmān Ba‘lī Ḥalabī (d. 1192 A.H.): Kashf al-Mukhaddarāt (a commentary on Akhṣar al-Mukhtaṣirāt),

–         Raḥībānī (d. 1243 A.H.): Maṭālib awlá al-Nuhá fī Sharḥ Ghāyah al-Muntahá,

–         Ibn Ḍawyān (d. 1353 A.H.): Manār al-Sabīl,

–         Ibn Qāsim (d. 1392 A.H.): Ḥāshīyah,

–         Balīhī (d. 1410 A.H.): al-Salsabīl,

4- Ibn Taymīyah, however, held the rank of ijtihād in Ḥanbalī jurisprudence, but his fatwas were not in agreement with any of the four Sunni legal schools (i.e. Mālikīyah, Ḥanafīyah, Shāfi‘īyah, and Ḥanbalīyah). One of his first works was the book of “al-‘Aqīdah”, which was intended as inadmissible and unconventional among Sunnis. He has criticized and rejected many theological beliefs of Ash‘arīyahin that book. He was an adherent of narration and ḥadīth, and a bitter enemy of Shi’ite and Sufism. Ibn Taymīyah was expelled from Damascus because of his deviant beliefs, which were strongly contrary to all Islamic sects, and scholars of the time just about excommunicated him. In addition, the scholars of Mecca and Medina condemned him, and prohibited him from entering in these cities. Ibn Taymīyah authored Minhāj al-Sunnah al-Nabawīyah to refute Minhāj al-Kirāmah (by ‘Allāmah Ḥillī) with the intention of defending people of the Sunnah and criticizing Shi’a beliefs.

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