Abul Hassan, Muhammad son of Hussein son of Mūsā Mūsawi Baghdādi, known as Sayyid Radhi was born in Baghdād in 356H.
He was born to a noble family; descendant of the infallible Imāms (Aemmah Ma’sūmeen A.S.).
His father descends from Imām Mūsā Kādhim (pbuh), and his mother descends from Imām Zain ul Ābedeen (pbuh).
His father was Abū Ahmad Hussein, known as Tāhir. He was titled ‘Dhul-Manqabatain’ (the one who is proud of having two laudable qualities). Tāhir was one of the most famous figures and considered highly by the government. He acted as a chieftain for sādāt (descendants of the holy Prophet), and a competent authority to resolve the dispute among people, and the head of Hajj pilgrims.
His mother was Fātimah daughter of Abū Muhammad, Hussein son of Ahmad, son of Muhammad Nāsir-e Kabir, a scholar woman and pious. Sheikh Mufid wrote the book (Ahkām-un-Nisā) on her request.Education
Once up on a night Sheikh Mufid dreamed, that Fātima-e Zahrā (pbuh) took her two sons (Imām Hassan and Imām Hussein (pbuh)to his Maktab ‘traditional school’ and ordered him: “O’ Sheikh, teach these two sons of mine the divine law”. Sheikh woke up and wondered about the dream. Next morning, Sayyid Radhi and Sayyid Mortadhā’s mother took them to the Sheikh and asked him: “O’ Sheikh, teach my two sons the divine law.” Sheikh Mufid was affected and cried and told them about the dream, and accepted training responsibility of those two great sons.
Among Sayyid Radhi’s instructors the followings can be mentioned:
1. Sheikh Mufid, Muhammad, son of Muhammad, son of No’mān
2. Abū Bakr, Muhammad son of Mūsā Khārazmi
3. Abul Hassan, Ali son of Isā Reb’ie
4. Abul Fath, Uthmān son of Jāni Mūseli
5. Abū Sa’eed, Hassan son of Abdullāh Seyrafi
Sayyid Razi, personally administered the school, student affairs and the library. He constantly sought to meet the welfare needs of the students, so that they could go about their studies with a clear mind. As a result, a great number of intellectuals graduated from his school, which had become popular throughout the Islamic lands including Iran and Egypt. Needless to say, these graduates in turn taught and transferred their knowledge acquired through
Sayyid Razi to other generations.
Among the students of Sayyid Razi who became outstanding scholars mention could be made of:
1. Abu Zayd Sayyid ‘Abdullah al-Kabayiki al-Husayni al- Jurjani.
2. Abu ‘Abdullah Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Ali Hulwani.
3. Abu ‘Abdullah Shaykh Ja’far bin Muhammad bin Ahmad Duryasti ‘Abasi, (d. 473).
4. Abu al-Hasan Sayyid ‘Ali bin Bindar bin Muhammad Qazi Hashimi.
5. Hafiz Abu Muhammad ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Abi Bakr Khuza’i Nayshaburi, (d. 445).
6. Abu Bakr Nayshaburi Ahmad bin Husayn bin Ahmad Khuza’i, (d. 480).
7. Aba al-Hasan Mahyar Daylami bin Marzawayh (d. 428).
8. Qazi Abu Mansur Muhammad bin Abi Nasr ‘Ukbari Mu’addil Baghdadi, (d. 472).
Sayyid Radhi was a smart, knowledgeable scholar with a very brilliant comprehension. He established a Madrasah (traditional school) in Baghdād and sat out to educate students in Islamic sciences. He also prepared a library for his students at that school.
In 388 H. Bahā-ud-dawlah appointed him as his vicegerent and granted him precious clothes, and elected him as the head of sādāt, and the competent authority for resolving dispute among people, and the head of pilgrims. .
In 397 H. Bahā-ul Mulk also granted him the same position too.
In 388 H. Bahā-ud-duwlah granted the title ‘Sharif-e Jalil’ (the lofty noble), and in 398 H. ‘Dhul Manqabatain’ and in the same year he was grated the title ‘Radhi, dhul Hasabain’ (the one who is proud of having descendant from A’emmah (pbuh) from both sides). In the year 401 H. Qawām-ud-din granted him the title ‘Sharif-e Ajall’ (the exalted noble).
Finally, after a long time of serving the Islamic and Shia world, Sayyid Radhi passed away in Baghdād in 406 H., when he was 47 years old, and buried in Kādhemein, beside the grave of Imām Mūsā Kādhim and Imām Jawād (pbuh).
Sayyid Radhi has valuable compilations, such as:
1. Nahjul Balāgha (gathering and compiling of this book has been done by him).
2. ‘Khasā’is-ul A’emma (pbuh)’ (the individual characteristics of Imams (pbuh)
3. Talkhis-ul Bayān Am-majāz-ul Qorān
4. Al Mujāzāt-un-nabawiya
5. Haqā’iq-ul Taweel fi Mutashābih-et-tanzil
6. Al-Hasan min Shi’r al-Husayn
7. Al-Ziyadat fi Shi’r Ibn al-Hajjaj
8. Al-Mukhtar min Shi’r Ab’i Ishaq
9. Ta’liqah ‘ala al-Izah
. 10. Ma’ani al-Qur’an
11. Diwan al-Shi’r
12. Inshirah al-Sadr fi Mukhtarat min al-Shi’r