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A Glance at Imam Khomeini’s Life

 

The great famed man of the contemporary age means Imam Khomeini was a pious learned, abstinent wise, politician sage, faithful, brave mystic, righteous ruler and devotee hero. He was a jurisprudent, theologian, philosopher, mystic, moralist, literary man and poet.

imam khomeini praying

 

 

 

Biography

Biography

Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was a Shiite Muslim cleric and marja, and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. Following the Revolution, Imam Khomeini became Supreme Leader of Iran —the paramount figure in the political system of the new Islamic Republic —until his death.

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Imam Khomeini was considered a marja-e taqlid to many Shi’a Muslims, and in Iran was officially addressed as Imam rather than Grand Ayatollah; his supporters adhere to this convention. Imam Khomeini was also a highly-influential and innovative Islamic political theorist, most noted for his development of the theory of velayat-e faqih, the “guardianship of the jurisconsult”. He was named Time’s Man of the Year in 1979.

Young Ayatollah Khomeini

Family and early years

Ruhollah Mousavi was born to Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Musavi and Hajieh Agha Khanum, also called Hajar, in the town of Khomein, about 300 kilometers south of the capital Tehran, Iran, possibly on May 17, 1900 or September 24, 1902. He was a seyyed from a religious family that are claimed descendents of Prophet Mohammad, through the seventh Imam, (Imam Mousa Kazem). His paternal grandfather, Seyyed Ahmad Musavi, whose third wife, Sakineh, gave birth to Mostafa in 1856. Imam Khomeini’s maternal grandfather was Mirza Ahmad Mojtahed-e Khonsari, a high-ranking cleric in central Iran. Following the grant of a monopoly to a British company, he banned the usage of tobacco by Muslims. The Shah canceled the concession. The event marked the beginning of the direct influence of the clergy in Iranian politics.

Imam Khomeini’s father was murdered when he was five months old, and he was raised by his mother and one of his aunts. Later, when he was 15, his mother and aunt died in the same year. At the age of six he began to study the Koran, Islam’s holy book. He received his early education at home and at the local school, under the supervision of Mullah Abdul-Qassem and Sheikh Jaffar, and was under the guardianship of his elder brother, Ayatollah Pasandideh, until he was 18 years old. Arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted, instead, to the seminary in Arak, which was renowned for its scholastic brilliance under the leadership of Ayatollah Sheikh Abdol-Karim Haeri-Yazdi (himself a pupil of some of the greatest scholars of Najaf and Karbala in Iraq).

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In 1921, Imam Khomeini commenced his studies in Arak. The following year, Ayatollah Haeri-Yazdi transferred the Islamic seminary to the holy city of Qom, and invited his students to follow. Imam Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved, and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom before being exiled to the holy city of Najaf in Iraq. After graduation, he taught Islamic jurisprudence (Sharia), Islamic philosophy and mysticism (Irfan) for many years and wrote numerous books on these subjects.

Although during this scholarly phase of his life Imam Khomeini was not politically active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writings revealed that he firmly believed from the beginning in political activism by clerics. Three factors support this suggestion. First, his interest in Islamic studies surpassed the bounds of traditional subjects of Islamic law (Sharia), jurisprudence (Figh), and principles (Usul) and the like. He was keenly interested in philosophy and ethics. Second, his teaching focused often on the overriding relevance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day. Third, he was the first Iranian cleric to try to refute the outspoken advocacy of secularism in the 1940s. His now well-known book, Kashf-e Asrar (Discovery of Secrets) was a point by point refutation of Asrar-e Hezar Saleh (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran’s leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi. Also he went from Qom to Tehran to listen to Ayatollah Hassan Modarres —the leader of the opposition majority in Iran’s parliament during 1920s.

Imam Khomeini became a marja` in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi.

Early Political Activity

In this time he could represent his religio-political ideas openly. Because the deaths of the leading, although quiescent, Shiite religious leader, Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Borujerdi (1961), and of the activist cleric Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani (1962) left the arena of leadership open to Imam Khomeini, who had attained a prominent religious standing by the age of 60. In addition, although ever since the rise of Reza Shah Pahlavi to power in the 1920s the clerical class had been on the defensive because of his secular and anticlerical policies and those of his son, Mohammad Reza Shah, these policies reached their peak in the early 1960s with “White Revolution”.

Opposition to White Revolution

Imam Khomeini first became politically active in 1962. When the White Revolution proclaimed by the Shah’s government in Iran, called for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women, profit sharing in industry, and an anti-illiteracy campaign in the nation’s schools. All of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, Westernizing trends by traditionalists, especially the powerful and privileged Shiite ulema (“religious scholars”) who felt keenly threatened. The ulema instigated anti-government riots throughout the country. They found it a sustainable ideological framework to support a particular relation of domination, in this case the monarchy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. This was above all a hegemonic project intended to portray the Shah as a revolutionary leader through the utilization of social and historical myths reinterpreted through the prism of contemporary, often conflicting ideological constructs, such as nationalism and modernism.

In January 1963, the Shah announced a six-point program of reform called the White Revolution, an American-inspired package of measures designed to give his regime a liberal and progressive facade. Imam Khomeini summoned a meeting of his colleagues (other Ayatollahs) in Qom to press upon them the necessity of opposing the Shah’s plans. Imam Khomeini persuaded the other senior marjas of Qom to decree a boycott of the referendum that the Shah had planned to obtain the appearance of popular approval for his White Revolution. Imam Khomeini issued on January 22, 1963 a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Two days later Shah took armored column to Qom, and he delivered a speech harshly attacking the ”ulama” as a class. Imam Khomeini continued his denunciation of the Shah’s programs, issuing a manifesto that also bore the signatures of eight other senior scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah allegedly had violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of comprehensive submission to America and Israel. He also decreed that the Norooz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (which fell on March 21, 1963) be cancelled as a sign of protest against government policies. On the afternoon of Ashoura (June 3, 1963), Imam Khomeini delivered a speech at the Feiziyeh Madreseh in which he drew parallels between Yazid and the Shah and warned the Shah that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country.

Following Imam Khomeini’s public denunciation of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as a “wretched miserable man” and arrest, on June 5, 1963 (Khordad 15, on the Iranian calendar), three days of major riots erupted throughout Iran with nearly 400 killed. Imam Khomeini was kept under house arrest for 8 months and was released in 1964.

Also this was a turning point in political viewpoint of Shi’a. The clergies had supported Shiite monarchy since establishment of Safavids and this was the main source of legitimacy of monarchs. Shiite clergies had advised them to be just and obey Ja’fari jurisprudence. Also monarchs didn’t enforce religious rules which restricted or threatened religious life and institutions and defended the Shiite territory of Iran. But Reza Shah transformed the Iranian monarchy into a modern dictatorship. The modernizing programs of Pahlavi dynasty restricted and threatened religious life and made clergies be against monarchy and finally Imam Khomeini decide to fight with them and build another state comparable to religious rules.

Opposition to capitulation

During November of 1964, Imam Khomeini made a denunciation of both the Shah and the United States, this time in response to the “capitulations” or diplomatic immunity granted to American military personnel in Iran by the Shah. In Nov. 1964 Imam Khomeini was re-arrested and sent into exile.

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Life in exile

Imam Khomeini spent over 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy Shiite city of Najaf in Iraq. Initially, he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964, where he stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year. He was hosted by a Turkish Colonel named Ali Cetiner in his own residence, who couldn’t find another accommodation alternative for his stay at the time. Later in October 1965 he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after then-Vice President Saddam Hossein forced him out (the two countries would fight a bitter eight year war 1980-1988 only a year after the two reached power in 1979) after which he went to Neauphle-le-Château in France.

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Logically, in the 1970s, as contrasted with the 1940s, he no longer accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907, an idea that was clearly evidenced by his book Kashf-e Asrar. In his Islamic Government (Hokumat-e Islami)— which is a collection of his lectures in Najaf published in 1970 —he rejected both the Iranian Constitution as an alien import from Belgium and monarchy in general. He believed that the government was an un-Islamic and illegitimate institution usurping the legitimate authority of the supreme religious leader (Faqih), who should rule as both the spiritual and temporal guardian of the Muslim community (Umma).

In early 1970 Imam Khomeini gave a lecture series in Najaf on Islamic Government which later was published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (velayat-e faqih). This was his most famous and influential work and laid out his ideas on governance (at that time):

· That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover “all human affairs” and “provide instruction and establish norms” for every “topic” in “human life.”

· Since Sharia, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia (Islamic jurists are such people), and that the country’s ruler should be a faqih who “surpasses all others in knowledge” of Islamic law and justice, as well as having intelligence and administrative ability. Rule by monarchs and/or assemblies of “those claiming to be representatives of the majority of the people” (i.e. elected parliaments and legislatures) have been proclaimed “wrong” by Islam.

· This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice: corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers.

A modified form of this velayat-e faqih system was adopted after Imam Khomeini and his followers took power, and he became the Islamic Republic’s first “Guardian” or Supreme Leader.

In the mean time, however, Imam Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade. Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as, for example, “the Jewish agent, the American snake whose head must be smashed with a stone,” became common items on the markets of Iran, helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign.

After the death in 1975 of Dr. Ali Shariati, an Islamic reformist revolutionary author/academic/philosopher who greatly popularized the Islamic revival among young educated Iranians, Imam Khomeini became perhaps the most influential leader of the opposition to the Shah perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual, if not political, leader of revolt. As protest grew, so did his profile and importance. During the last few months of his exile, Imam Khomeini received a constant stream of reporters, supporters, and notables, eager to hear the spiritual leader of the revolution.

Supreme leader of Islamic Republic of Iran

Return to Iran

Only two weeks after the Shah fled Iran on January 16, 1979, Imam Khomeini returned to Iran triumphantly, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, invited by the anti-Shah revolution which was already in progress.

Conservative estimates put the welcoming crowd of Iranians at least three million. When Imam Khomeini was on plane on his way to Iran after many years in exile, a reporter, Peter Jennings asked him: “What do you feel?” and surprisingly Imam Khomeini answered “Nothing!”.

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In a speech given to a huge crowd after returning to Iran from exile Feb.1, 1979, Imam Khomeini attacked the government of Shapoor Bakhtiar promising “I shall punch their teeth in.” He also made a variety of promises to Iranians for his coming Islamic regime: A popularly elected government that would represent the people of Iran.

Portrait of Imam Khomeini on a building

Establishment of new government

On February 11, Imam Khomeini declared a provisional government. On March 30, 1979, and March 31, 1979, the provisional government asked all Iranians sixteen years of age and older, male and female, to vote in a referendum on the question of accepting an Islamic Republic as the new form of government and constitution. Through the ballot box, over 98% voted in favor of replacing the monarchy with an Islamic republic. Subsequent elections were held to approve of the newly-drafted constitution. Along with the position of the Supreme Leader, the constitution also requires that a president be elected every four years, but only those candidates approved indirectly by the Council of Guardians may run for the office. Imam Khomeini himself became instituted as the Supreme Leader for life, and officially decreed as the “Leader of the Revolution.” On February 4, 1980, Abolhassan Banisadr was elected as the first president of Iran.

Hostage crisis

On November 4, 1979, a group of students, all of whom were ardent followers of Imam Khomeini, seized the United States embassy in Tehran, and took 63 American citizens as hostage. Three additional hostages were taken at the Iranian Foreign Ministry. Thirteen of the 63 hostages were released (mostly women and black personnel) within two weeks, and one more in July 1980. The remaining fifty men and two women were held for 444 days — an event usually referred to as the Iran hostage crisis. The hostage-takers justified this violation of long-established international law as a reaction to the American refusal to hand over the Shah for trial, for crimes against the Iranian Nation. Supporters of Imam Khomeini named the embassy a “Spy Den”, weapons and electronic listening devices and equipment were found, and fifty volumes of official and secret classified documents were later retrieved from it, after embassy staff were caught shredding and destroying it. Imam Khomeini stated on February 23, 1980, that Iran’s Majles (Parliament) would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, demanding that the United States hand over the Shah for trial in Iran for crimes against the Nation. U.S. President Jimmy Carter launched a commando mission to rescue the hostages, but the attempt was aborted when the helicopters crashed into other aircraft under unexpected desert conditions in Tabas. Many commentators point to this failure as a major cause for Carter’s loss to Ronald Reagan in the following presidential election. The hostages were released during Ronald Reagan’s inauguration ceremony; Reagan was informed of this upon leaving the podium after taking the oath of office.

Islamic constitution

After assuming power, Islam was made the basis of Iran’s new constitution and obedience to Islamic laws made compulsory.

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Relationship with other Islamic nations

Imam Khomeini intended to reconstruct Muslim unity and solidarity, so he declared the birth week of Prophet of Islam (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi’al-awwal) as the Unity Week. Then he declared the last Friday of the fasting month of Ramadan as the International Day of Quds in 1979.

But because of Islamic ideology of Islamic Republic of Iran, most rulers of other Muslim nations turned against him and supported Iraq in the imposed war against Iran, even though most of Islamic parties and organizations supported his idea, especially the Shiite ones.

Iran-Iraq War

Saddam Hossein, Iraq’s secular Arab nationalist Ba’athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran’s weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran’s adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan and undermine attempts by Iranian Islamic revolutionaries to incite the Shi’a majority of his country.

With what many believe was the encouragement of the United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries, Iraq soon launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War (September 1980 – August 1988). A combination of fierce patriot resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and by early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion. The invasion rallied Iranians behind the new regime, enhancing Imam Khomeini’s stature and allowed him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership.

Although outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, the West (America in particular) became alarmed by the possibility of the Islamic revolution spreading throughout the oil-exporting Persian Gulf oil and began to supply Iraq with whatever help it needed. The war continued for another six years, with 450,000 to 950,000 casualties on the Iranian side and the use of chemical weaponry by the Iraqi military.

As the costs of the eight-year war mounted, Imam Khomeini, in his words, “drank the cup of poison” and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. As the war ended, the struggles among the clergy resumed and Imam Khomeini’s health began to decline.

Rushdie Fatwa

In early 1989, Imam Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie, an Indian-born British author. Imam Khomeini claimed that Rushdie’s murder was a religious duty for Muslims because of his alleged blasphemy against Prophet Mohammad in his novel, The Satanic Verses. Rushdie’s book contains passages that some Muslims —including Ayatollah Imam Khomeini— considered offensive to Islam and the Prophet. Though Rushdie publicly apologized, the fatwa was not revoked, Imam Khomeini explaining that “even if Salman Rushdie repents and become the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell.”

Letter to Mikhail S. Gorbachev

In December 1988 (before the fall of the Berlin Wall), Ayatollah Imam Khomeini sent a letter to USSR president Mikhail Gorbachev predicting the fall of Communism and inviting him to study and research Islam. In his historical letter he wrote: “It is clear to everyone that Communism should henceforth be sought in world museums of political history.”

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Life under Imam Khomeini

Under Imam Khomeini’s rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women. Women had to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts.

Life for religious minorities has been mixed under Imam Khomeini and his successors. Shortly after his return from exile in 1979, Imam Khomeini issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Bahai) be treated well. By law, several seats in the parliament are reserved for minority religions. Imam Khomeini also called for unity between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims (Sunni Muslims are the largest religious minority in Iran).

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Death and funeral

After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Imam Khomeini died of cancer on Saturday, June 3, 1989, at the age of 89. Many Iranians mourned Imam Khomeini’s death and poured out into the cities and streets.

Successorship

Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei came to be selected by the Assembly of Experts to be Imam Khomeini’s successor, in accordance with the constitution.

Political thought and legacy

Imam Khomeini adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist would insure Sharia was properly followed (velayat-e faqih).

Imam Khomeini believed that Iran should strive towards self-reliance. He viewed certain elements of Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth. As such, he often advocated the banning of popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature. His ultimate vision was for Islamic nations to converge together into a single unified power, in order to avoid alignment with either side (the West or the East), and he believed that this would happen at some point in the near future.

Imam Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in Sahifeh Nour (Vol. 2, page 242), he states: “We would like to act according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We would like to be free. We would like independence.”

Imam Khomeini led an ascetic lifestyle, being deeply interested in mysticism, and was against the accumulation of land and wealth by the clergy.

Many of Imam Khomeini’s political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution.

Imam Khomeini’s definition of democracy existed within an Islamic framework. His last will and testament largely focuses on this line of thought, encouraging both the general Iranian populace, the lower economic classes in particular, and the clergy to maintain their commitment to fulfilling Islamic revolutionary ideals.

Family and descendants

In 1929, Imam Khomeini married Batol Saqafi Khomeini, the daughter of a cleric in Tehran. They had seven children, though only five survived infancy, 3 daugheters and 2 sons. His sons entered into religious life. The elder son, Mostafa, was murdered in 1977 while in exile with his father in Najaf, Iraq and SAVAK (the Imperial-era secret police) was accused of his death by Imam Khomeini. Ahmad Khomeini, the younger son, died in 1995.

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Imam Khomeini’s grandson Seyyed Hassan Khomeini, son of the late Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is also a cleric and the trustee of Imam Khomeini’s shrine.

Spiritual Life

Spiritual Life

The Years of Spiritual and Intellectual Formation |

After his arrival in Qum in 1922 or 1923, the Imam first devoted himself to completing the preliminary stage of madrasa education known as sutuh; this he did by studying with teachers such as Shaykh Muhammad Riza Najafi Masjid-i Shahi, Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khwansari, and Sayyid ‘Ali Yasribi Kashani. However, from his early days in Qum, the Imam gave an indication that he was destined to become more than another great authority on Ja’fari jurisprudence. He showed an exceptional interest in subjects that not only were usually absent from the madrasa curriculum, but were often an object of hostility and suspicion: philosophy, in its various traditional schools, and Gnosticism (‘irfan). He began cultivating this interest by studying the Tafsir-i Safi, a commentary on the Qur’an by the Sufistically-inclined Mullah Muhsin Fayz-i Kashani (d.1091/1680), together with the late Ayatullah ‘Ali Araki (d. 1994), then a young student like himself. His formal instruction in gnosticism and the related discipline of ethics began with classes taught by Hajji Mirza Javad Maliki-Tabrizi, but this scholar died in 1304/1925. Similarly, the Imam was not able to benefit for long from his first teacher in philosophy, Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakim Yazdi, a pupil of the great master Mullah Hadi Sabzavari (d.1295/1878), for Yazdi passed away in 1305/1926. Another of the Imam’s early instructors in philosophy was Sayyid Abu ‘l-Hasan Qazvini (d. 1355/1976), a scholar of both peripatetic and illuminationist philosophy; the Imam attended his circle until Qazvini’s departure from Qum in 1310/1931.

The teacher who had the most profound influence on Imam Khomeini’s spiritual development was, however, Mirza Muhammad ‘Ali Shahabadi (d. 1328 Sh. /1950); to him the Imam refers in a number of his works as shaykhuna and ‘arif-I kamil, and his relationship with him was that of a murid with his murshid. When Shahabadi first came to Qum in 1307 Sh. /1928, the young Imam asked him a question concerning the nature of revelation, and was captivated by the answer he received. At his insistent request, Shahabadi consented to teach him and a few other select students the Fusus al-Hikam of Ibn ‘Arabi. Although the basis of instruction was Da’ud Qaysari’s commentary on the Fusus, the Imam testified that Shahabadi also presented his own original insights on the text. Among the other texts that Imam Khomeini studied with Shahabadi were the Manazil al-Sa’irin of the Hanbali Sufi, Khwaja ‘Abdullah Ansari (d.482/1089), and the Misbah al-Uns of Muhammad b. Hamza Fanari (d. 834/1431), a commentary on the Mafatih al-Ghayb of Sadr al-Din Qunavi (d. 673/1274).

It is conceivable that the Imam derived from Shahabadi, at least in part, whether consciously or not, the fusion of gnostic and political concerns that came to characterize his life. For this spiritual master of the Imam was one of the relatively few ulama in the time of Riza Shah to preach publicly against the misdeeds of the regime, and in his Shadharat al-Ma’arif, a work primarily gnostic in character, described Islam as “most certainly a political religion.”[9]

Gnosis and ethics were also the subject of the first classes taught by the Imam. The class on ethics taught by Hajji Javad Aqa Maliki Tabrizi were resumed, three years after his death, by Shahabadi, and when Shahabadi left for Tehran in 1936, he assigned the class to Imam Khomeini. The class consisted in the first place of a careful reading of Ansari’s Manazil al-Sa’irin, but ranged beyond the text to touch on a wide variety of contemporary concerns. It proved popular to the extent that the townsfolk of Qum as well as the students of the religious sciences attended, and people are related to have come from as far a field as Tehran and Isfahan simply to listen to the Imam. This popularity of the Imam’s lectures ran contrary to the policies of the Pahlavi regime, which wished to limit the influence of the ulama outside the religious teaching institution. The government therefore secured the transfer of the lectures from the prestigious location of the Fayziya madrasa to the Mullah Sadiq madrasa, which was unable to accommodate large crowds. However, after the deposition of Riza Shah in 1941, the lectures returned to the Fayziya madrasa and instantly regained their former popularity. The ability to address the people at large, not simply his own colleagues within the religious institution, which the Imam displayed for the first time in these lectures on ethics, was to play an important role in the political struggles he led in later years.

While teaching ethics to a wide and diverse audience, Imam Khomeini began teaching important texts of gnosis, such as the section on the soul in al-Asfar al-Arba’a of Mullah Sadra (d. 1050/1640) and Sabzavari’s Sharh-I Manzuma, to a select group of young scholars that included Murtaza Mutahhari and Husayn ‘Ali Muntaziri, who subsequently became two of his principal collaborators in the revolutionary movement he launched some three decades later.

As for the earliest writings of the Imam, they also indicate that his primary interest during his early years in Qum was gnosis. In 1928, for example, he completed the Sharh Du’a’ al-Sahar, a detailed commentary on the supplicatory prayers recited throughout Ramadan by Imam Muhammad al-Baqir; as with all Imam Khomeini’s works on gnosis, the terminology of Ibn ‘Arabi is frequently encountered in this book. Two years later, he completed Misbah al-Hidaya ila ‘l-Khilafa wa ‘l-Wilaya, a dense and systematic treatise on the main topics of gnosis. Another product of the same years of concentration on gnosis was a series of glosses on Qaysari’s commentary on the Fusus.

In a brief autobiography written for inclusion in a book published in 1934, the Imam wrote that he spent most of his time studying and teaching the works of Mullah Sadra; that he had for several years been studying gnosis with Shahabadi; and that at the same time he was attending the classes of Ayatullah Ha’iri on fiqh.[10]

The sequence of these statements suggests that fiqh was as yet secondary among his concerns. This situation was to change, but gnosis was for the Imam never simply a topic for study, teaching, and writing. It remained an integral part of his intellectual and spiritual personality, and as such infused many of his ostensibly political activities in later years with an unmistakably gnostic element.

The Imam did not engage in any overt political activities during the 1930’s. He always believed that the leadership of political activities should be in the hands of the foremost religious scholars, and he was therefore obliged to accept the decision of Ha’iri to remain relatively passive toward the measures taken by Riza Shah against the traditions and culture of Islam in Iran. In any event, as a still junior figure in the religious institution in Qum, he would have been in no position to mobilize popular opinion on a national scale. He was nonetheless in contact with those few ulama who did openly challenge Riza Shah, not only Shahabadi, but also men such as Hajji Nurullah Isfahani, Mirza Sadiq Aqa Tabrizi, Aqazada Kifai, and Sayyid Hasan Mudarris. He expressed his own opinions of the Pahlavi regime, the leading characteristics of which he identified as oppression and hostility to religion, as yet only allusively, in privately circulated poems.[11]

He assumed a public political stance for the first time in a proclamation dated 15 Urdibihisht 1323/ 4 May 1944 that called for action to deliver the Muslims of Iran and the entire Islamic world from the tyranny of foreign powers and their domestic accomplices. The Imam begins by citing Qur’an, 34:46 (“Say: ‘I enjoin but one thing upon you, that you rise up for Allah, in pairs and singly, and then reflect’”). This is the same verse that opens the chapter on awakening (bab al-yaqza) at the very beginning of Ansari’s Manazil al-Sa’irin, the handbook of spiritual wayfaring first taught to the Imam by Shahabadi. The Imam’s interpretation of “rising up” is, however, both spiritual and political, both individual and collective, a rebellion against lassitude in the self and corruption in society.

The same spirit of comprehensive revolt inspires the first work written by the Imam for publication, Kashf al-Asrar (Tehran, 1324 Sh. /1945). He is said to have completed the book in forty-eight days from a sense of urgency, and that it indeed met a need is proven by the fact that it went through two impressions in its first year. The principal aim of the book, as reflected in its title, was to refute ‘Ali Akbar Hakamizada’s Asrar-i Hazarsala, a work calling for a “reform” of Shi’i Islam. Similar attacks on Shi’i tradition were being made in the same period by Shari’at Sanglaji (d.1944), an admirer of Wahhabism despite that sect’s marked hostility to Shi’ism, and Ahmad Kasravi (d. 1946), competent as a historian but mediocre as a thinker. The Imam’s vindication of such aspects of Shi’i practice as the mourning ceremonies of Muharram, pilgrimage (ziyara) to the tombs of the Imams, and the recitation of the supplicatory prayers composed by the Imams, was therefore a response to the criticisms made by all three. Imam Khomeini connected their assaults on tradition with the anti-religious policies of Riza Shah and bitterly criticized the Pahlavi regime for destroying public morality. He stopped short, however, of demanding the abolition of the monarchy, proposing instead that an assembly of competent mujtahids should choose “a just monarch who will not violate God’s laws and will shun oppression and wrongdoing, who will not transgress against men’s property, lives, and honor.”[12]

Even this conditional legitimacy of monarchy was to last “only so long as a better system could not be established.”[13] There can be no doubt that the “better system” already envisaged by Imam Khomeini in 1944 was vilayat-i faqih, which became the constitutional cornerstone of the Islamic Republic of Iran established in 1979.

When Shaykh ‘Abd al-Karim Ha’iri died in 1936, the supervision of the religious institution in Qum had been jointly assumed by Ayatullah Khwansari, Ayatullah Sadr, and Ayatullah Hujjat. A sense of lack was nonetheless felt. When Ayatullah Abu ‘l-Hasan Isfahani, the principal marja’-i taqlid of the age residing in Najaf, died in 1946, the need for a centralized leadership of Shi’i Muslims became more felt more acutely, and a search began for a single individual capable of fulfilling the duties and functions of both Ha’iri and Isfahani. Ayatullah Burujirdi, then resident in Hamadan, was seen to be the most suitable person available, and Imam Khomeini is said to have played an important role in persuading him to come to Qum. In this he was no doubt motivated in part by the hope that Burujirdi would adopt a firm position vis-a-vis Muhammad Riza Shah, the second Pahlavi ruler. This hope was to remain largely unfulfilled. In April 1949, Imam Khomeini learned that Burujirdi was engaged in negotiations with the government concerning possible emendations to the constitution then in force, and he wrote him a letter expressing his anxieties about the possible consequences. In 1955, a nationwide campaign against the Baha’i sect was launched, for which the Imam sought to recruit Burujirdi’s support, but he had little success. As for religious personalities who were militantly active in the political sphere at the time, notably Ayatullah Abu ‘l-Qasim Kashani and Navvab Safavi, the leader of the Fida’iyan-i Islam, the Imam’s contacts with them were sporadic and inconclusive. His reluctance for direct political involvement in this period was probably due to his belief that any movement for radical change ought to be led by the senior echelons of the religious establishment. In addition, the most influential personage on the crowded and confused political scene of the day was the secular nationalist, Dr. Muhammad Musaddiq.

Imam Khomeini therefore concentrated during the years of Burujirdi’s leadership in Qum on giving instruction in fiqh and gathering round him students who later became his associates in the movement that led to the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime, not only Mutahhari and Muntaziri, but younger men such as Muhammad Javad Bahonar and ‘Ali Akbar Hashimi-Rafsanjani. In 1946, he began teaching usul al-fiqh at the kharij level, taking as his text the chapter on rational proofs from the second volume of the Kifayat al-Usul of Akhund Muhammad Kazim Khurasani (d. 1329/1911). Initially attended by no more than thirty students, the class became so popular in Qum that five hundred were in attendance the third time it was offered. According to the reminiscences of some of those who took the class, it was distinguished from other classes taught in Qum on the same subject by the critical spirit the Imam instilled in his students, as well as his ability to connect fiqh with all the other dimensions of Islam – ethical, gnostic, philosophical, political, and social.
Notes:

[9] Shadharat al-Ma’arif, Tehran, 1360 Sh./1982, pp. 6-7.
[10] Sayyid ‘Ali Riza Yazdi Husayni, Aina-yi Danishvaran, Tehran, 1353/1934, pp. 65-7.
[11] Sayyid Hamid Ruhani, Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-I Imam Khomeini, I, Najaf, n.d., pp. 55-9.
[12] Kashf al-Asrar, p. 185.
[13] Kashf al-Asrar, p. 186.

Others Viewpoints

Others Viewpoints

Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei
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Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei as the firm follower of Imam Khomeini has always spoken of the power and glory of the Imam and described his management as follows: “He was the full exemplar of a Muslim and an Islamic leader. The Imam granted dignity to Islam and hoisted the banner of the holy Quran in the world. In the era that all powerful political hands were trying to isolate religion, spirituality and moral values, Imam Khomeini (God’s mercy upon his soul) created a system based on religious, spiritual and moral values and founded an Islamic government and policy. Imam Khomeini administered and safeguarded the Islamic Republic for 10 years and brought it to a height of glory. His 10 year leadership is an unforgettable memory and a precious reservoir for our people and our managers.”

Martyr Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Sadr

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Among the great prophet’s followers there are a few who left such a great impact on the society.

Ayatollah Abdullah Javadi Amoli

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Imam Khomeini was one of the greatest deputies of the infallibles.
He gave life to the spirits… and in the ray of spirit revival, he revived the divine sciences and God approved him with invisible assistances. Imam made the isolated Quran known again and the hidden tradition, the grand tradition and he made the isolated religion, the familiar religion.

Rashid Ahmad Joghtai

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The head of Pakistan’s council for unity:

Rashid Ahmad said that Imam Khomeini frequently highlighted significance of harmony among all Islamic sects and divine religions.

He also suggested that Imam Khomeini should not only be considered as a religious and spiritual leader of the Muslims, but all humanity.

Joghtai went onto say that the great Imam Khomeini followed footsteps of the holy prophet of Islam and his truthful infallible successor and established an endured Islamic-democratic system in Iran. The academic said that Imam refused to bow to pressure by arrogant powers and rejected their dominance.

The intellectual noted that great Imam has had well command over several discipline of knowledge including jurisprudence, philosophy, poetry and several other branches of Islamic and social sciences.

However, Imam’s mystic perspective and approach was so manifest and evident which earned appreciations by followers of all divine religions.

Richard Falk

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An American Professor, internationally-reputed academic and an American activist:

Richard Falk says he was deeply impressed by unique wisdom and intelligence of Imam Khomeini during an exclusive meeting in France.

It is noteworthy that Richard Falk is Albert G Milbank Professor Emeritus of International Law at Princeton University and Research Fellow, Orfalea Center of Global Studies. He is also the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Palestinian human rights.

The activist says a day before his triumphal return to Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini spoke of his hopes for the revolution. The scholar recalls and says exactly 35 years ago, I had the experience of a lengthy meeting with Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in his tent where he received visitors in the Paris suburb of Neuphle-le-Chateau.

It was on the day preceding his triumphal return to Iran after almost 14 years of exile, mostly spent in Najaf, Iraq, he said.

The internationally-reputed recalls some of his memoirs in this regard as following:

I was returning to the United States after spending two weeks in Iran during the turbulent final stage of the revolution that was on the verge of victory. My presence in Iran was in response to an invitation from Mehdi Bazargan, soon to become interim prime minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

I was accompanied by Ramsey Clark the former US Attorney General, and still a prominent political figure in the country, and Philip Luce, a highly respected leader of a religious NGO who had distinguished himself by much publicized nonviolent civil initiatives of opposition to the Vietnam War.

At the time, I was chair of a small American committee opposed to American intervention in Iran, and it was the activities of this group that, I assume, led to the invitation to get a first-hand look at the revolution.

We met with a wide spectrum of Iranian religious and secular personalities, including the Shah’s last prime minister, Shapour Bakhtiar and William Sullivan, who was appropriately the final American ambassador to Iran.

While we were in Iran, the Shah left the country signaling the end of his monarchy, which occasioned at the time the largest mass display of joy that I have ever witnessed, with millions peacefully marching on the streets of Tehran in a festive mood.

Leaving such a scene, and having the opportunity to meet with Ayatollah Khomeini climaxed this experience of touching the live tissue of revolution. In Iran, with crowds chanting his name and carrying posters bearing his image, it was clear he was the iconic inspiration of the revolution that had somehow managed to overthrow one of the strongest and most oppressive regimes in the world.

We had little sense, however, of the sort of future Khomeini envisioned for himself or what his hopes were for the revolution. What was obvious from the moment we were seated cross-legged on the ground within his tent was the strength of his arresting presence, especially his shining eyes that seemed almost black.

What struck us immediately was his active mind and sharp intelligence. He wanted to know what we thought were American intentions now that the Shah was gone, and whether the United States was ready to respect the outcome of Iran’s revolution. In turn, we asked about his hopes for the Iranian Revolution. His response fascinates me to this day.

First of all, he immediately corrected us forcefully pointing out that what had just been completed was “an Islamic Revolution”, that is, asserting as primary an identity associated with religious and cultural affinities rather than emphasizing the nationalist agenda of regime change that was the common way of interpreting what had happened in Iran.

Ayatollah Khomeini went on to say that the importance of the unfolding of events in Iran related to the entire region. Imam Khomeini spoke disparagingly about the Saudi Arabian dynasty, calling it “decadent” and out of touch with its people.

Imam Khomeini, then, explained his own role in Iran, saying that he entered the political domain because the Shah had “created a river of blood between himself and the people”. He added that he was looking forward to “resuming the religious life” upon his return to Iran.

There were other important pronouncements made during the meeting. We asked about the fate of minorities, specifically, Jews, who were seen as aligned with the Shah, and in jeopardy. Imam Khomeini’s response was thoughtful, and suggestive of what would follow. He said, “For us, the Jews are an authentic religion of the book, and if they are not too entangled with Israel, they are most welcome in Iran, and it would be a tragedy for us if they left.”

Ayatollah Khomeini spoke at some length about the crimes of the Shah’s government, and the responsibility of its political entourage, suggesting the importance of individual accountability. He mentioned the Nuremberg trials of surviving Nazi political figures and military commanders after World War II as a useful precedent that would underpin the approach taken by the new Iranian leadership toward those who had carried out the repressive policies of the Shah, which included widespread torture and massacres of unarmed demonstrators.

His vision of an Islamic political future that was rooted in religious affinities rather than based on national borders. The discrepancy between his assertions that upon returning to Iran he would resume the pursuit of his religious vocation and his emergence as the dominating political figure who presided over the drafting of a new constitution and the formation of the government.

It is clear that the Islamic Republic that emerged in Iran resembled the kind of ideal design of Islamic government that Ayatollah Khomeini had depicted in a series of lectures on “Islamic Government”, which was published in 1970.

Mikhail Gorbachev

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The head of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:

Gorbachev says that he was deeply impressed and came to conclusion that the founder of the Islamic Republic was deeply concerned about the fate of the whole world and wanted me to become familiar with the Islamic teachings and the Islamic Revolution.

The former head of the communist state said that he read the letter and its contents carefully and made up his mind to take it seriously. He also admits that the great Imam has had left a great impact on contemporary era.

“When I read this letter among the members of the supreme communist council who had half of the world under their political influence became astonished and the letter was a source of surprise to them. They all showed great respect towards the message and concluded that the Iranian leader intended to protect the human values. I really feel sorry that I could not travel to Iran to have a face to face meeting with Imam Khomeini during that period. Anyhow, I recall him with great respect and his personality and thought belonged to all eras and his thought don’t restrict to certain era or period of time,” Gorbachev said.

Gorbachev also said that he started to implement some reforms immediately after receiving Imam Khomeini’s letter and allowed a number of mosques, churches and temples of other religions to be built across the country.

He also appreciated Imam’s wisdom and prediction regarding collapse of the communist system. Imam had predicted that communism will soon be seen in museum of human history.

Gorbachev concluded that the situation could have been prevented if they had taken Imam’s letter and advises more seriously.

Dr.Burhan Abd al-Salam Azimi

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TheChief Justice of Afghanistan’s Supreme:

Dr. Burhan Abdussalam Azimi, the chief justice of Afghanistan’s Supreme Court said that Imam Khomeini’s thought relieves humanity from crisis.

The chief justice went on to say that the public and masses of Afghanistan are well aware of Imam Khomeini’s thought and I personally had read several of his precious works over some past few years.

Dr. Azimi also put emphasis on following the great Imam’s dynamic thought in order to gain independence and self-determination for the whole of the Muslim world.

The chief justice concluded that he came here to seek assistance from Imam’s great soul and pray for prosperity of the Muslim Ummah. He also sought best wishes for the Iranian nation.

Several analyst and pundits believe that Imam’s dynamic thought had raised awareness among the Muslim and oppressed people of the world and his teachings could bring about real freedom and independence for all nations.

Dr. Dimitri Kitsikis
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Christian thinker and professor of history of international relation from Greece:

For us as Greece orthodox Christians who refute satanic surpass of western values, Imam Khomeini was an example of a global champions for establishment of truth instead of material values. However, western global propaganda trying to show him as a fanatic person but, we know that his personality was full of affection and kindness toward people of the world completely who move in the path of God and reject the predominance of material values.

Doctor Mahmoud Mustafa Ayoub

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A Professor and Chair of Islamic Studies in the Department of Religion, Temple University, Philadelphia, America.

I believe that Imam Khomeini will be presented by history as a global character of twentieth century. Because, he was a man that had both political and religious genius. It is true that, guardianship of the jurisconsult has ever been touché upon as an Islamic-Shiites concept since lesser occultation but, Imam Khomeini gave it another interpretation. It means infallible Imam (PBUH) has a role on the governorship through scholars who are jurisprudent. These scholars are the deputies of infallible Imam, and if a person had the features which explained by Imam of the Time, he will be the first jurisprudent.

I believe that one of the most important effects of Imam Khomeini’s movement was changing the government of a big and important Islamic country from secular nature to Islamic nature. Thus Islamic Republic became a model for Islamic movements.

Rajiv Gandhi Prime Minister of India (1984–1989)

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When Imam Khomeini passing away, world has lost a great spiritual and revolutionist leader that had large minded.

Imam Bukhari Muslim Leader of India

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Imam Khomeini was a pious, jurisprudence and history maker in last century.

He was a hero that no one has been such as him in last one hundred years. Imam Khomeini left such a reserve in the world that he will be proverbial in hundreds of years.

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

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Former President of South Africa (1994 -1999):

Imam Khomeini was the famous son of the Islam. He has had a considerable role in showing the direct route to present and future generations of Muslims.

Professor Hamid Mowlana

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Imam Khomeini was a man who fascinated peoples with his own words. He spoke language of ordinary people and, gave self-confidence to his poor and disadvantaged supporters. This feeling make them power to kill anyone who stands on their way. He showed the people that can stand against powers such as America and do not fear of them.

German Journalist Peter Scholl-Latour
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Peter Scholl-Latour: That flight was the crowning achievement of all my preparations for the revolution. Before Khomeini returned to Tehran, I went there with my camera team and, back in Paris, I showed him what I’d filmed there. I’d spoken with many of the revolutionaries. The contact to Khomeini came via Tabatabei, a teacher from Bochum, who’d seen my film and who was related to Khomeini.

You became Khomeini’s confidante…

Well, really, Khomeini didn’t have any confidantes, not even among Iranians. But I was the European, the non-believer, who got closest to him — and whom he trusted.

What did you think of Khomeini? What kind of person was he?

He was very strict, he led a very ascetic lifestyle. The home where he lived in exile in France became a place of pilgrimage. Many exiled Iranians in Germany and France were opposed to the shah. All of a sudden, many young people were gripped by religious fervor. Even girls whose jeans couldn’t be worn tight enough and who usually walked around in tiny T-shirts started covering their bodies. Young men started growing long beards.

Back to Feb. 1, 1979. You’re sitting with Khomeini in a plane from Paris to Tehran. What was it like? Did you speak to each other?

It certainly wasn’t a normal flight. We were accompanied by a French special unit, because we didn’t know how we’d be received. We didn’t even know if we’d be able to land in Tehran. There was the danger that the Iranian airforce would attack us, because it wasn’t totally clear whether part of the force would continue to support the shah.

What do you remember of the flight? How did Khomeini seem to you?

Khomeini was always a very serious person. You almost never saw him smile. But on this day, he was really relaxed, almost happy. He was sitting up in the top part of the Boeing, and Tabatabei said to me: “The Imam is doing his morning prayer, and if you want, you can film him.” That was very unusual. And then something extraordinary happened. He gave Tabatabei a big, yellow envelope, and he passed it on to me and said: “If we’re arrested or killed when we land in Tehran, then please hide this envelope carefully. If everything goes well, then please give it back to me.” When we arrived, there were 2 million people out to greet Khomeini. So I gave the envelope back. Only eight months later did I learn what was in there: It was the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

His Teachers

His Teachers

1.Mirza Muhammad Mahdi Khumayni

Thus, as is clear, the first teacher of religious studies of the late Imam Khumayni was his maternal uncle Hajj Mirza Muhammad Mahdi Khumayni. About this teacher we only know that he was the son of Mirza Ahmad Mujtahid —the father of Imam Khumaynis mother Hajar Khanum— who was originally from Khwansar and was settled in Khumayn. Unfortunately, at present there is not much information about father and son. Hujjat al-Islam Ahmadi Khumayni who is considered a relative of the late Imam Khumayni is most probably the grandson of Mirza Ahmad.

2. Aqa Najafi Khumayni

There is no information about him.

3. Ayatullah Hajj Sayyid Murtada Pasandidah

He was the elder brother of Imam Khumayni and was born in 1313 AH in Khumayn where he learned the basic sciences from his teachers. In 1327 he left for Isfahan to study literature, logic, kalam, fiqh, usul, astronomy and astrology under such teachers as Aqa Rahim Arbab, Aqa Shaykh ‘Ali Yazdi,3 Aqa Tuysirkani 4 Ayatullah Mir Muhammad Sadiq Khatunabadi and Ayatullah Sayyid ‘Ali Najafabadi. He returned to Khumayn and organized seminary studies and his younger brother Imam Khumayni was among his students.5

4 & 5. Shaykh Muhammad Gulpayegani & Shaykh Muhammad ‘Ali Burujirdi
We do not have information on these two learned scholars.

6. Aqa ‘Abbas Araki

Ayatullah Shaykh ‘Abbas Idrisabadi Araki was a teacher at the Aqa Zia al-Din Theological School (madrasah) of Arak. According to a contemporary writer, Dehgan by name, there is not a scholar in Arak who has not studied under Shaykh ‘Abbas. The late Grand Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad ‘Ali Araki was one of his students.

7. Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad ‘Ali Adib Tehrani (1320-1369 AH)

According to Athar al-Hujjah, Hujjat al-Islam Mirza Muhammad ‘Ali Adib, the son of Mirza Muhammad Taqi Hakim- Bashi was one of the great scholars and teachers of sutuh and literature at the hawzah (religious academy), who possessed outstanding qualities. At the age of 20 he studied literature under Aqa Mirza Kuchak and Aqa Shaykh Buzurg Saviji — two of the leading scholars of Tehran — and later studied under Shaykh ‘Abd al-Husayn Rashti. At Arak and Qum, he benefited from the classes of Grand Ayatullah Hairi.

He acquired the epithet of Adib because of his mastery over literature. The author of Ayeneh-ye Danishwaran writes that Adib was among the teachers of usul and fiqh at the hawzah. He is the author of the book Sarf al-Sarf on grammar and Hashiyah BarMughni al-Labib of Ibn Hisham, None of the two books have been printed. One of the earlier prints of Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummis famous prayer and supplication manual Mafafih al-Jinan was edited by Adib, a fact which bears testimony to his literary genius. The grave of this great teacher is in the Hajj Shaykh Cemetery of Qum.

8. Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khawansari (1305-1371)

He studied in holy Najaf under such great scholars as Akhund Khurasani (author of Kifayah al-Usul), Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi (author of al-Urvah al-Wutqa), Shaykh al-Shariah Isfahani, Aqa Zia al-Din Iraqi, Mirza Muhammad Husayn Naini (author of Tanbih al-Ummah wa Tanzih al-Millah) and Shaykh ‘Ali Quchani. He came to Qum in the year the hawzah was established and was one of its prominent teachers.

Imam Khumayni studied part of jurisprudence under him. Among the works written by Sayyid Taqi Khwansari we can mention al-Hashiyah fi al-Urvah al-Wutqa in Arabic and the Manual of Islamic Laws (Risalah-yi Amaliyyah) in Persian. Part of his lectures on the discourse of Kitab al-Taharah was published by the late Ayatullah Muhammad ‘Ali Araki.7

In the aftermath of the First World War when the Iraqi people rose against the British colonialists under the leadership of ‘ulama and maraji‘ (pi. of marja‘ or religious authority who is considered as source of reference and emulation by the common people), Ayatullah Khwansari along with Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi and Sayyid Musfafa Kashani, was actively engaged in the fighting. Throughout his life he remained a staunch opponent of the deceptive slogan that religion and politics are separate.

Imam Khumayni was very much attached to this great scholar and at times would recall his greatness. Once the late Imam remarked:

He was the religious scholar who went to the war fronts in Iraq, fought and was taken prisoner. The late Sayyid Taqi Khwansari was held prisoner (by the British) for quite a long time.

His grave is adjacent to that of Ayatullah ‘Abd al-Karim Hairi in the holy mausoleum of Hadrat Ma‘sumah in Qum.

9. Ayatullah Aqa Mirza Sayyid ‘Ali Yathribi Kashani (1311-1379 AH)

He was a student of Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, Shaykh al-Shariah Isfahani, Aqa Zia al-Din Iraqi and Mirza Muhammad Husayn Naini. In 1341 AH on the invitation of Ayatullah Hairi he came to Qum where he taught at the hawzah till 1347 AH, before settling down in his hometown Kashan. His tomb on the other side of the Mashhad in Kashan is frequently visited by the people.

Imam Khumayni studied fiqh and usul under Ayatullah Aqa Mirza Sayyid ‘Ali Yathribi Kashani, and after 1345 AH, both teacher and student started attending the senior classes of Ayatullah Hairi. Except for his Hashiyah (glosses) on al-‘Urvah al-Wuthqa and some portions of the principles of jurisprudence, no other work is known to have survived from Ayatullah Yathribi Kashani.

10. Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Rafii Qazwini (1312 or 1315/1396 AH)

This great scholar was a student of Sayyid Muhammad Tonekaboni (author HashiyahRasail) and Hakim Mirza Hasan Kermanshahi. He came to the hawzah of Qum in 1340 AH and till 1349 when he returned to his hometown Qazwin, he attended the classes of Ayatullah Hari. During his 9-year stay in Qum, Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Rafii Qazwmi used to teach the Makasib and Rasa il of Shaykh Murtada Ansari, the Kifayat al- Usul of Akhund Khurasani, the al-Asfar al-Arbaah of Mulla Sadra and the Sharh Manzumah (Commentary on the Philosophical Poem) of Mulla Hadi Sabzewari. Imam Khumayni was among his students.

Among his works could be cited the Risalah-yi Ra‘jat, Risalah-yi Miraj, Risalah-yiM‘aad, Risalah-yi Ittihad Aqil va Ma‘qul, Risalah-yi Radd bar Wahhabiyyat and Sharh Du‘a-yi Sahar. Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Rafii lies buried in the hall adjacent to the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘suma (A.S.).

11. Ayatullah Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakami Yazdi (d. 1344)

This philosopher was a student of Jahangir Khan Qashqai and Aqa Muhammad Rida Qumshahi. For years he taught at the madrasah of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Husayn in Tehran, where among his students mention could be made of Mirza Ahmad Ashtiyani. In 1340 AH he came to Qum to teach mathematics, astronomy and such philosophical works as Asfar, Sharh Manzumah and Sharh Fusus al-Hikam of Dawud ibn Muhammad al-Rumi al-Qaysari (commentary on the Spanish Gnostic Muhyi al-Din ibn Arabs famous work).

Among the printed works of Ayatullah Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakami Yazdi, mention could be made of Rasail Hikmiyyah which contains short treatises on Quiddity and Existence, Self- Recognition, and Awareness of God. Another of his works is a collection of treatises on kalami, philosophical and anthropological issues.

Imam Khumayni in his exegesis on the Surah al-Hamd, says:

When I came to Qum (in 1340 AH), the late Aqa Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakami, may God have mercy upon him, was in Qum at the time the hawzah was established. Scholars used to go there for studies. The late Aqa Khwansari (Sayyid Muhammad Taqi), the late Aqa Ishraqi (Mirza Muhammad Taqi) and Aqa Sayyid Ahmad Taqi Khwansari went there to study under Mirza ‘Ali Akbar.

The late Aqa Kamarehi writes: After the passing away of our teacher Mirza ‘Ali Akbar Hakami, I used to hold discourses with Ayatullah Khumayni on the Ilahiyyat (theology) of Asfar. Ayatullah Hakami Yazdi died in 1344 AH and was buried in the Shaykhan Cemetery of Qum.

12. Ayatullah Shaykh ‘Abd al-Karim Hairi (1276-1355)

This great teacher had studied in Najaf under the martyr Shaykh Fadlullah Nuri, the renowned Ayatullah Mirza Hasan Shirazi, Akhund Khurasani, Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi and Sayyid Muhammad Fisharaki. He returned to Iran in 1333 AH and lookup teaching at Araks modest theological school. In 1340 AH he went to Qum for pilgrimage to the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (A.S.), and upon the request of the ‘ulama and elders of that city, he decided to stay there. Some of the students and scholars who attended his classes in Arak, followed their teacher to Qum and thus was established the great hawzah which is today the centre of learning for world Muslims, especially the Shiites.

Imam Khumayni also moved to Qum from Arak in 1340 AH and after studying philosophy, advanced fiqh and usul, started attending the classes of Ayatullah Hairi in 1345 and was a regular student till the death of this illustrious teacher in 1355. Imam Khumayni used to recall with profound respect the memory of his great teacher.

Ayatullah Hairi was laid to rest in the hall adjacent to the shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (A.S.). The works written by him are Kitab al-Salat, Durar al-Fawaid and the Hashiyah on al-‘Urwah al-Wuthqa, as well as the Manual of Islamic Laws. His lectures and discourses on jurisprudence and usul have been compiled by some of his students and published in book form.

13. Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Shahabadi (1292/1369 AH)

This great philosopher and Gnostic had studied under Mirza Hashim Khwansari (author of Mabani al-Usul), Mirza Hasan Ashtiyani (author of Hashiyah al-Rasail), the philosopher Mirza Hashim Gilani, the Gnostic Mirza Abu al-Hasan Jilwah, Akhund Khurasani, Shaykh al-Shariah Isfahani and Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi. He came to Qum in 1347 AH and for the next seven years taught at the hawzah until his migration to Tehran in 1354 AH. During this period, Imam Khumayni benefited most from the knowledge of Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Shahabadi and studied Fusus al-Hikam, Mafatih al-Ghayb, and Manazil al-Sairin under him. Imam Khumayni had great respect for this teacher and has spoken highly of him in his speeches and in his works such as Misbah al-Hidayah, Araba‘in Hadith, Ta‘liqah‘Ala Sharh Fusus al-Hikam, and Ta‘liqah ‘Ala Sharh Misbah al-Uns.

Ayatullah Shahabadi was a prolific writer and his works include Rashahaat al-Bihar — a work greatly valued by Imam Khumayni — Shadhrat al-Ma‘arif and the Manual of Islamic Laws titled Miftah al-Sa‘adah. He was a staunch opponent of the Pahlavi dictator Reza Khan and his oppressive and ungodly officials. His biography vividly describes his struggle against oppression. He was laid to rest in Rayy near the grave of the 6th century exegete of the Holy Quran Abu al-Futuh Razi, between the holy shrines of Hadrat ‘Abd al-‘Azim al-Hasani (A.S.) and Hamzah ibn Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.).

14. Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Reza Najafi Isfahani Masjid-Shahi (1287-1362 AH)

This great scholar stayed in Qum for only a year and a half, arriving in 1344 AH when the scholars and religions teachers of Isfahan were shifting to the holy city. However, during this brief period of stay of Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Reza Najafi Isfahani, many of the ‘ulama and teachers of the hawzah, including Imam Khumayni benefited from his knowledge of jurisprudence and usul Imam Khumayni and some of his colleagues regularly studied under him the Critique of Darwins Theory of Evolution.

Imam Khumayni had profound memories of Ayatullah Muhammad Reza Najafi Isfahani and his classes of fiqh and usul. In his book Makasib Muharramah (Prohibited Professions), the late Imam has quoted extensively from his teachers Risalah Rawdat al-Ghina‘ which he considers the best work on the critique of music. He has also quoted this respected teacher as authority in his discourse on the terminology of the principles of jurisprudence concerning the sanctioned or lawful things.

Ayatullah Muhammad Reza Najafi Isfahani, who authored some 30 books, was among the teachers who authorized Imam Khumayni to relate hadith as the latter has mentioned in his book Arbain or collection of Forty Hadith. Among his books is Wiqayat al-Adhhan, Naqd-i Falsafah Darwin and Amjadiyyah, all three of which have been printed. He was also an expert in Arabic literature, and his diwan or collection of poetry, which has recently been published, is an undeniable proof in this regard. He was buried in the Takht-i Fulad Cemetery of Isfahan in the family graveyard.

15. Grand Ayatullah Sayyid ‘Abd al-Husayn Burujirdi (1292-13 80 AH)

This great religious authority (marja‘), after initial studies in the hawzah of Isfahan under Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Durchihi and Jahangir Khan Qashqai, left for the holy city of Najaf where he benefited from the classes of Akhund Khurasani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi and Shaykh al-Shariah Isfahani. In 1328 AH, he returned to his hometown Burujird, where for the next 35 years he was engrossed in research and publication of books.

In 1364 AH, Grand Ayatullah Sayyid ‘Abd al-Husayn Burujirdi went to Tehran for medical treatment, after which on the request of the prominent ‘ulama of Qum, including Imam Khumayni, he accepted the charge of the hawzah and settled in this holy city. Some of his works which have been published are: Hashiyah on al-‘Urvahal-Wuthqa, Manual of Islamic Laws, and a brief biography of his family.

Imam Khumayni who was 45 years at the time of Ayatullah Burujirdis arrival in Qum, regularly attended his classes, which according to some ‘ulama, was out of respect for the eminent position of this great jurisprudent of the School of Ahl al-Bayt. The modesty and sincerity of Imam Khumayni can be gauged from what Ayatullah Pasandidah has quoted from his younger brother:

After the passing away of Ayatullah Hairi, Ayatullah Burujirdi came to Qum, and Hadrat Imam (Khumayni) who had already achieved a very prominent position in terms of knowledge, attended his classes in order to promote and popularize him. He would say: I have benefited a lot from his classes.

One of the books written by Imam Khumayni is a collection of discourses of Ayatullah Burujirdi. This great scholar of Islam who had a worldwide following as Marja‘ Taqlid for Shiite Muslims, passed away in 1380 and was laid to rest at a spot between the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (A.S.) and Masjid A‘zam.

16. Ayatullah Mirza Jawad Maliki Tabrizi (d. 1343 AH)

He was a product of the hawzah of the holy city of Najaf, and studied fiqh under Aqa Reza Hamedani (author of Misbah al-faqih), usul under Akhund Khurasani, and ethics and rules of demeanor under Mulla Husayn Quli Hamedani (d. 1311 AH). Ayatullah Mirza Jawad Maliki-Tabrizi returned to Iran in 1321 AH and after spending some years in his hometown Tabriz, settled down in the holy city of Qum in 1329 AH. He authored several books including Asrar al-Salah, al-Muraqabat, Liqa‘ Allah and Hashiyah Ghayat al-Quswa which is a translation of al-‘Urvah al-Wuthqa. The first three books have been printed and the manuscript of the fourth is in the possession of the writer of this article.
When the hawzah was established in Qum in 1343 AH, Ayatullah Mirza Jawad Maliki Tabrizi became one of its prominent teachers. He mainly taught ethics and his classes were attended by many scholars. He used to hold two separate classes on ethics; one was an open session at Madrasah Faydiyyah for all students and the other was a special discourse on ethics at his home for scholars, which was regularly attended by Imam Khumayni.

The late Imam has quoted in his works from this teacher, and in the book Sirr al-Salah has recommended the reading of his works, saying:

Among the contemporary ‘ulama I suggest the study of the books of the eminent Shaykh and Gnostic Hajj Mirza Jawad Tabrizi (may his soul be sanctified).12

The grave of Ayatullah Maliki-Tabrizi in the Shaykhan Cemetery of Qum,, is frequently visited by the ‘ulama.

17. Ayatullah Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-Amili (1285-1371 AH)

The author of the renown biographical encyclopedia, Ayan al-Shi‘ah, was among the ‘ulama from whom Imam Khumayni received the authorization to relate hadith. He writes in Arba‘in:
I received both written and oral authorization (to relate hadith) from some of the most prominent and trustworthy ‘ulama, including the Master of Authority, the Scholastic Jurisprudent, the Trustworthy Personality, ‘Allamah Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-Amili.

Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin who lived most of his life in Damascus, rests in peace in the courtyard of the holy mausoluern of the Prophets grand daughter Hadrat Zaynab (A.S.).

18. Ayatullah Muhaddith Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummi (1294-1359 AH)

This great hadith researcher also gave his authorization to Imam Khumayni to relate hadith, as mentioned in Arba‘in.
And among them is the Great and Reliable Shaykh, the Trustworthy Scholar, Hajj Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummi.

Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummi who was a meticulous researcher and prolific writer, is the author of several outstanding books including Safinat al-Bihar wa Madinat al-Hikam-wa al-Athar (a much valued 8-volume glossary on ‘Allamah Majlisis magnum opus Bihar al- Anwar) and the widely read manual of prayers and supplications Mafatih al-Jinan. He died in Najaf and was buried in one of the aivans of the courtyard of the holy shrine of Amir al-Muminin Imam ‘Ali (A.S.), beside the grave of his equally famous teacher Ayatullah Mirza Husayn Tabrisi Nuri.

19. Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Qasim Dehkurdi Isfahani(1272-1353 AH)

He also granted Imam Khumayni the authorization to relate hadith as is mentioned in Arba‘in. Sayyid Muslih al-Din Mahdawi writing about Ayatullah Sayyid ‘Abu al-Qasim Dehkurdi Isfahani, says:

This faqih and usuli mujtahid, was one of the prominent scholars and teachers of the hawzah of Isfahan. He had studied in Samarra‘ under Ayatullah Mirza Hasan Shirazi and in Najaf under Shaykh Zayn al-‘Abidin Mazandarani and Mirza Husayn Tabrisi Nuri.

He used to teach at Madrasah Sadr of Isfahan and was a source of reference and authority for the people of the city. Sixteen books are known to have been written by him including Hashiyah Bar Jami ‘Abbasi, Hashiyah Bar Nukhbah Hajj Kalbasi and the Manual of Islamic Laws. Ayatullah Dehkurdi who died in 1353 AH was laid to rest in the courtyard of Zaynabiyyah Mausoleum of Isfahan.

Imam Khumayni in the beginning of his Arba‘in, after mentioning the names of the four ‘ulama including Ayatullah Dehkurdi from whom he had the authorization to narrate hadith (the other three being Shaykh Muhammad Reza Masjid-Shahi, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-‘Amili and Shaykh ‘Abbas Qummi), writes:

The chain of authority of these four notables reaches Shaykh Murtada Ansari, and we have other chains also which do not end with Shaykh Ansari. But here we have not mentioned those other chains.

The writer of this article, at present, does not have information on the other sources of authority who gave permission to Imam Khumayni.

20. Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Taqi Bafqi Yazdi (1292-1365 AH)

This pious and combatant scholar had studied fiqh at the hawzah in Najaf under Akhund Khurasani and Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, ethics under Sayyid Ahmad Karbalai (student of Mulla Husayn Quli Hamedani) and hadith under Sayyid Hasan Sadr. In 1337 AH he returned to Iran and settled in Qum. When Ayatullah ‘Abd al-Karim Hairi visited Qum for pilgrimage to the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (A.S.), Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Taqi Bafqi Yazdi was among the scholars who requested him to stay in the holy city and reorganize the mode of teaching. After establishment of the hawzah in Qum, he became a strong support for Ayatullah Hairi in administering the educational affairs.

In 1346 AH, Ayatullah Bafqi Yazdi because of his enjoining of good and forbidding of evil and his public protest to the irreligious policies of Reza Khan, was insulted and beaten personally by the Pahlavi dictator in the holy shrine of Hadrat Ma‘sumah. He was subsequently jailed in Tehran and was later interned in the Hadrat ‘Abd al-‘Azim (a) sanctuary in Rayy, where he spent 19 years. Imam Khumayni had great respect for this combatant ‘alim because of his piety and indomitable spirit. Aqa Radi in his book al-Taqwa wa ma Adraka ma al-Taqwa, writes:

Imam Khumayni in his lessons on ethics while teaching at Madrasah Faydiyyah would often remark: These days anyone wishing to visit a staunch believer who has subjugated the devils and reformed them, should travel to the city of Rayy and after performing the pilgrimage to the shrine of Hadrat ‘Abd al-‘Azim ( ‘a) should meet Aqa Bafqi. And he (Imam Khumayni) used to recite the following couplet:

What a wonder that a single miracle would accomplish two tasks, The pilgrimage of Shah ‘Abd al-‘Azim and meeting with the beloved.

Ayatullah Bafqi Yazdi later returned to Qum where he died in 1465 AH and was buried in the mausoleum of Hadrat Ma‘sumah (a). 13

Notes:
1. Hudur Magazine, vol. 10, p.5
2. This is how Imam Khumayni has described his maternal uncle, Hudur, vol. I, p.5
3. Tadhkirat al-Qubur, which is an account of the notables of Isfahan, says: Aqa Shaykh ‘Ali Mudarris Yazdi taught sutuh-I fiqh and Arabic literature at the Sadr School of Isfahan and groomed a vast number of scholars. He lived a simple life of ascetic content and met his living expenses by researching and editing texts. He died in 1354 AH and was buried in one of the northern rooms of the Burujirdi Takiyah.
4. Probably he is Mirza Muhammad Baqir Tuysirkani (1293-1374 AH), about whom the Tadhkirat al-Qubur says: Son of Hajj Mirza ‘Abd al-Ghaffar. He studied under his father and Hajj Mirza Badi Darb-i Imami, Akhund Kashi and Aqa Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Durchihi. He was a jurisprudent and recluse. Scholars and friends would gather at his house for scientific debates. His works include Hashiyah BarSharai and
Hashiyah Bar Lum ah 5. Hudur, special issue on Ayatullah Pasandidah. Also refer to Ganjinah-yeDanehmandan, vol. 2.
6. Rida Ustadi, Sharh-e Ahval-e Ayatullah al-’Uzma Araki, p. 143.
7. Appendix to Kitab al-Taharah of Ayatullah Araki.
8. Refer to Nur-e-‘Ilm magazine for a detailed account of this scholar.
9. For his biographical sketch refer to Aseman-e-Ma‘rifat by Ayatullah Hasan Hasanzadah Amuli.
10. Ayatullah Mirza Khalil Kamarehi who was his student, has provided a biographical account of his teacher in the introduction to Risalah-yi Hikmiyyah.
11. A detailed account of his life is found in Sayyid Muslih al-Din Mahdawis Tarikh-i llmi -wa Ijtimai Isfahan, vol. 2.
12. According Ganjinah-ye Daneshmandan, vol. 5, p. 42: The late Imam benefited from the ethical discourses of Ayatullah Hajj Mirza Jawad Aqa Maliki Tabrizi. This is further confirmed by Aqa Suha‘s Tarlkh-i Hukama, p. 68, which says: Aqa Sayyid Ruhullah al-Musawi al-Khumayni, student of Aqa Mirza Jawad Aqa Maliki in the field of ethics.
On the basis of this documented evidence, the writer of the article considers the late Ayatullah Maliki among the teachers of Imam Khumayni. However, one of the learned scholars after reading my article has disputed my finding, and says that the late Imam has not mentioned the name of Ayatullah Maliki in his reminisces of his teachers.
13. Rida Ustadi: My earlier article titled The Teachers of Imam Khumayni was published several times. The present article is a revised and complete edition of the previous one.

Testament

Testament

In the Name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful

The Messenger of God has said, verily I am leaving with you the two most valuable and weighty objects: the Book of God and my household (the Thaqalain). Indeed these two shall not part with each other until they join up with me by the pond (of Kowthar in Paradise on the Day of Judgment).

(The Prophetic Tradition of Thaqalain)

To Allah belongs all praise. Glorified is Thy Name, O God, bless Muhammed and his household who are manifestations of Your Beauty and Magnanimity and the secret treasures of Your Book, the Book that crystallizes Your Oneness in all Your Names and Divine Attributes, including the one that none but Yourself knows. And let there be curse on those who oppressed the Prophet (PBUH) and his household, those that belonged to the wretched pedigree.

At the outset to this prologue, it appears proper to briefly comment on the two most exalted and momentous objects of trust (The Thaqalain) , not on their transcendental, spiritual, or mystical aspects, an area into which pens such as mine are unable to venture as it is a domain of molk, the cognition of which covers all circles of beings, from earth to heaven (Malakoot-e-Aala) and beyond to His Divine presence (Lahoot) including circles that lie beyond the comprehension of our intellects. Nor do I mean to comment on that which has befallen humanity due to its negligence of the true nature and status of the greater trust (theql-e-akbar The Holy Qur’an ) and that of the great trust (theql-e-kabir = The Household of the Prophet (PBUH)), which is greater than anything except the great trust which is great in the absolute (akbar-e-mutlaq). Also I do not intend to recount here all that has befallen these two most valuable divine trusts (The Thaqalain) by the enemies of God and the treacherous followers of the tyrants (Taghootian) as these are too many for me to enumerate, given my limited knowledge and time.

I thought that I might make a passing remark about what has happened to these two most valuable treasures. Perhaps the phrase, which will never part with each other until they join me by the pond (Howz) …implies that after the death of the Prophet (PBUH), the Book of God and the household of the Prophet (PBUH) shall receive similar treatment. Whatever is made of one, the other suffers the same until both descend on the Prophet (PBUH) and unite with him by the Pond. Does this union, this pond, indicate the merging of plurality with unity as the disappearance of drops in the sea? Or, does it mean something beyond the gamut of human intellect and cognition? Moreover the cruelty to which these two divine trusts, nay the entire humanity including the Islamic ummah (nation), were subjected by the followers of the tyrants and their stooges defy description by pen.

It should be mentioned that the Thaqalain Hadith … which is a mutawatir (an unbroken chain of recorded traditions) Tradition has been quoted, cited and adduced successively by Muslim ‘ulema (foqaha, learned religious authorities or jurists), in both Shia and Sunni denominations as proof positive for all mankind, especially for Muslims in all sects and branches. References to this Prophetic tradition are frequently made in such highly reliable Sunni sources like the famous Six Authentic Texts (The Sahah-e-Sitta) as well as in countless Shiite cogent texts. This hujjat or proof is binding on all Muslims who are accountable for it especially the foqaha (Muslim religious jurists) as they cannot claim ignorance of it. Let us now see what befell this book of God, this Divine Trust and the bequest of the prophet of Islam. The sad events for which tears may well be shed, began to take place following the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali (as). Selfish people, followers of taghoots (despotic, pagan rulers) abused the Holy Qur’an as a mean by which to establish anti-Qur’anic rules.

To achieve this they forced off the scenes the true interpreters of the Qur’an and others who had received all of the Holy Book directly from the Prophet (PBUH) and whose ears still echoed with the voice of His Holiness Muhammad (PBUH) as he had said, I am leaving with you the two most valuable objects… Thus, the Qur’an, which was to be mans guide to moral and material life to the Last Day, was shelved and the rule of divine justice that was, and still is, one of the ideals of the holy Book, was all forgotten.

Perversion of the Book, of Divine Traditions and of Gods religion reached a shameful stage, it became the rule. The more this warped and distorted condition advanced, the more the Holy Qur’an that had been sent down for the betterment of man was forced into oblivion. The Qur’an was sent down by the Omniscient God to Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) to complete and seal such divine revelations (Kashf -e Tomm-e Muhammadi), to unite humanity and advance him to his rightful station; to rescue this issue of the divine attributes (Validah-e Eimul-Asmae) … from tyranny and evil; to institute the rule of justice and equity and to confer sovereignty to the Infallible and divine authorities ( Masoomeen) that they in turn hand over such divine sovereignty to qualified worthy persons, was removed from all areas as though it had had no mission to guide mankind. In the hands of oppressive rulers and wicked akhunds (Muslim clergymen, sometimes used in a derogatory manner), who were more decadent than the taghooti (despotic) rulers the Holy Qur’an was abused as an instrument of oppression, cruelty and corruption and was distorted to justify acts of tyranny by the enemies of God.

Unfortunately, in the hands of conniving enemies and ignorant friends, the Holy Qur’an, this divine book that is empowered to decide mans destiny, has found no place anywhere except in graveyards and at the gatherings for the dead. The instrument, that was to unite Muslims and all mankind and serve as scripture for their lives and salvation, was turned into an instrument of division and dispute among men or left the arena entirely. We all witnessed that whoever spoke of Islamic rule or of politics, which is the major role of Islam and its Prophet (PBUH), or of the Qur’an and Islamic traditions, was regarded as one who had committed grave sins. The term akhund-a-siasi, which means a political clergyman, came to denote a profane canonist. These circumstances are still extant.

In recent years major satanic powers have, through their puppet regimes, undertaken to reprint and publish the Holy Qur’an, distorting sacred verses to serve their devilish ends. Such Qur’ans are published with attractive calligraphy and binding and are distributed everywhere with the aim of eventually removing the Holy Book from all scenes. We all PBUH the Qur’an that Muhammad Reza Khan Pahlavi had printed. He succeeded in deceiving some people including a few Muslim akhunds or preachers who, unaware of the aims of Islam, praised him for it. We note that each year King Fahd of Saudi Arabia spends a good deal of the wealth of the people in printing the Holy Qur’an and considerable publicity and propaganda material in support of anti-Qur’anic ideas propagating the baseless and superstitious cult of Wahhabism Fahd abuses the Qur’an, urges negligent people and nations to side with the superpowers. He uses the noble Islam and the Holy Book to destroy both.

We are proud, and our dedicated nation is proud, that we adhere to a faith in which the Holy Qur’an speaks of the unity of all Muslims and the oneness of mankind. We are proud that our faith has retrieved the Qur’an from the cemeteries and has saved this Holy Book as mans prescription for freedom from all physical, mental and intellectual bonds that push him deeper into slavery and nothingness. We are proud to be followers of a religion whose founder has been designated by divine commandment and in which ‘Ali ibn Abi Taleb (as), this servant of God, free of all bonds and shackles of servitude and serfdom, has been appointed to deliver mankind from all the chains of slavery and thralldom. We are honored that the book Nahjul-Balagha, which is next to the Qur’an, is mans great manuscript for salvation, moral and material existence and the greatest instrument for just rule and government, has our Infallible Imam, Ali (as) as its author.

We are proud to have had as our leaders the Infallible Imams, from Ali (as) down to Hazrat Mahdi (AJ) who, by the grace of God, lives in occultation, and watches our doings.

We are honored to have our Infallible Imams as authors of such exalted, superb and life-giving prayers of supplication (referred to as The Ascending Qur’an (Qur’an -e-Sa-ed)), as the Shabaniah prayer, the Arafat Prayer of Imam Hussein (as), the Sahifah Sajjadiah …, these psalms of the Household of Muhammad (PBUH) , and the Sahifah Fatimiah … revealed by the Lord to Her Holiness Fatima Zahra (sa). We are honored to have had as our fifth Infallible Imam, Baqir-ul-uloom (as) (profound knowledge, a title given to the fifth Imam), this superlative world personality whose true station can be appreciated by none save Allah, His Prophet (PBUH) and the Infallible Imams (PBUT).

We are proud to be followers of the Jaferi faith (Religion) whose fiqh(religious legislation and jurisprudence) is a boundless ocean. We are proud of all our Infallible Imams (the 12 innocent ones) and we are committed to follow them. We are honored that our Infallible Imams (as) suffered imprisonment, banishment and finally attained martyrdom in their efforts to advance Islam; to implement the teachings and commandments of the Holy Qur’an-of which the establishment of the sovereignty of justice is but one dimension – and; to overthrow the rule of the oppressors and of the arrogant. Today, we feel proud that we seek to re-institute the objectives of the Holy Qur’an and Tradition and that the various layers of our nation sacrifice their lives, properties and loved ones for this holy cause.

We are proud that our women, young and old, regardless of their status, are present and active, side by side with the men, often more active than men, in all scenes including cultural, economic and military areas. They strive, sometimes more effectively than the men, for the propagation of Islamic teachings. Women who are capable of fighting take military training, which is a major prerequisite for the defense of Islam and the Islamic state. Our women have extricated themselves from the deprivations imposed on them by the enemies of Islam and by the inadequate knowledge of friends of Islamic tenets. They have bravely discarded the superstitions created by enemies through some ignorant preachers. Those women who are unable to fight in the war fronts serve behind the front-lines with such ardor and courage that makes the hearts of their men tremble with delight and it throws fear in the heart of enemies and makes ignorant individuals who are worse than foes shake with anger and fear. Often we hear our women, in a manner like that of Hazrat Zainab, cry out loud saying that they have given children in the path of God and Islam and are proud of it. They realize that what they get in return is far above the blessings of Heaven, let alone the material things of this world.

Our nation, indeed all Islamic nations as well as the meek and oppressed are pleased to see that their enemies, who are the enemies of Almighty God, of Islam and of the Holy Qur’an, are indeed savages who do not desist from committing any criminal acts to promote their mean purposes and who are unable to tell a friend from a foe in achieving treacherous goals. The USA is the foremost enemy of Islam. It is a terrorist state by nature that has set fire to everything everywhere and its ally, the international Zionism does not stop short of any crime to achieve its base and greedy desires, crimes that the tongue and pen are ashamed to utter or write. The stupid idea of a Greater Israel … urges them to commit any shameful crime. The Islamic nations and the mustazafeen (the meek, the oppressed) peoples of the world are pleased to have Hussein of Jordan a professional, itinerant criminal, Hasan of Morocco and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, fellow-mangers of Israel, as enemies. These are fellow-criminals with Israel and commit any act of treason against their own nations to serve the USA. We cheer to have Saddam, the Aflaqi as an enemy whom friend and foe know to be a criminal, a violator of human rights and international laws and whose betrayal of the peoples of Iraq and of the Persian Gulf Emirates, has been no less than his betrayal of our country and people. We and the oppressed peoples of the world are delighted to be objects of criminal accusations by the superpowers through the international mass media under their control.

What can be a better source of pride than the fact that the USA with all its military might, its boastfulness, its claims, its mass media and its allies among puppet regimes, has been so dumbfounded and disgraced in its dealings with the dauntless Iranian nation and the land of His Holiness Baqiyatullah (a title of the 12th infallible imam, Hazrat Mahdi (AJ) who is now in occultation) that it does not know which way to turn and who to turn to?!! This is not the work of anyone or anything except divine assistance that has awakened nations, particularly the Iranian Muslim nation and has guided it from darkness into light: The Light of Islam.

I now take this opportunity to advise the oppressed and noble nations, including our own, to stay firmly on this divine straight path that leads neither to the atheistic (Mulhid) East nor to the oppressive, pagan West, but to the path which the Almighty God has decreed for us. I further advise not to be negligent even for a single moment in being grateful for this blessing. Let no polluted hand of a superpower, or its agents, whether domestic or foreign, affect your determination and will. Know that the rowdier the Eastern or Western satanic power gets, the more proof it is for your divine support and God shall reward and punish the deserving ones in the best fashion in this and in the other worlds. Truly, He is the Lord of all blessing and in His hand lies the dominion over all things.(The Qur’an , Sura 23, AI-Muminun, the Believers, verse 88).

I earnestly ask all Muslim nations to follow the practices and traditions of the Infallible Imams (as) in respect of political, social, economic and military affairs and to sacrifice for their sake whatever may be required. Also, I would like to enjoin on all of you to safeguard and observe the Fiqh sunnati (Traditional fiqh) or religious canons for these set forth the schools of prophetic mission and Imamate and guarantee the growth and development of the nations through their primary and secondary decrees … both of which are schools of Islamic jurisprudence. My advice is that you do not deviate an iota from the teachings of both schools of Islamic fiqh and not listen to the whisperings of the slinking (Satan) who are the enemies of religion and truth. Be sure that even a minor step toward deviation may be a prelude to the fall of the religion, of the tenets of Islam and of the divine rule of justice. Do not ever miss the Friday mass prayers … and the daily congregational … prayers (Salaat-al-Jumah and Salaat-al-Jamaat.). The Friday Congregational Prayer is one of the greatest divine blessings for the Islamic Republic of Iran; it reflects the political dimension of prayers. Also, never neglect the mourning ceremonies … commemorating the martyrdom of the Innocent Imams particularly that of the Master of All Martyrs his Holiness Abi Abdullah Hussein (as), may God, His Angels, the prophets and saints bless his great, valiant soul!

Let all know that the decrees of the Imams (as) regarding the observance of this great epic event of Islam and all the curses levied against the enemies of Ahl-e Bayt (the Household of the Prophet … are, in fact, the heroic cries of nations against agents of tyranny throughout history. You should know that the damnation and curses against the then injustices of the Bani Omayyads …, who were annihilated and cast into the Hell, reflect the cries of protest by the people against the oppressors of the world and it is the perpetuation of such cries of protest that shatters oppression. It is necessary that the crimes of the tyrants in each age and era be regularly condemned in the cries of lamentation and in the recitals of elegies held for the Infallible Imams.

In this age of oppression of Muslim nations is the work of the USA and the U.S.S.R and their local lackeys such as the Alay Saud (Family of Saud and rulers of Hijaz), these traitors to the House of God, the Great Divine Sanctuary, who deserve the most potent damnation by Allah, His Angels (Mala-eka) and

Prophets (PBUH). We must all know that it is these political ceremonies (Friday Mass, the Hajj Pilgrimage, the Salaat ul Jamaat,etc) that give Muslims, particularly the ithnai Ashar (the Shiite Muslims who accept and follow the 12 Infallible Imams (as)), the unity they should enjoy; these also preserve the nationality of all Muslims.

Let me say at this point that this politico-religious testament of mine is not made to the noble people of Iran only. Rather, it is recommended for all Islamic nations and the oppressed peoples of the world regardless of religion or nationality. I humbly pray that Almighty God does not leave us and our nations to us even for a moment. May He not withhold His blessings from the children of Islam and the cherished Muslim combatants.

Ruhollah Al-Musavi Al-Kbomeini

In the Name of God the Compassionate the Merciful

The significance of the glorious Islamic Revolution which came to be through the efforts of millions of worthy men and the blood of thousands of martyrs and disabled veterans (living martyrs)… and which is regarded as a source of hope and inspiration to millions of oppressed human beings, is so great that it defies evaluation by pen or tongue.

I, Ruhullah al Musavi al Khomeini, ever mindful of the Lords bounty in spite of my shortcomings and having as provision for my hazardous course only my hope and trust in His Munificence; and, as a humble talaba‘ (student of Islamic jurisprudence) who, like all other brothers-in-faith, have faith in this revolution and the everlastingness and perpetuation of its achievements and its fruition, undertake to present the following as my covenant and will with the present and future generations. I pray that God may grant me sincerity of purpose in making these remarks:

1- We all know that the great revolution which severed the tentacles of the tyrannical world-mongers from the face and form of Iran was made possible by divine grace only. It would have been impossible for the people of Iran to achieve this great feat in view of the following conditions that prevailed in the country at that time:

Immeasurable anti-Islamic, anti-clerical propaganda, particularly during the last century; creation of disunity and discord among the population by writers, poets, orators and the communication mass media; the establishment of so many centers of gambling, prostitution, narcotics consumption, bars and cabarets to drag the youth into indifference and vice, by the corrupt shah and his illiterate father; the imposition on the people of parliaments rigged up by the embassies of foreign powers; the use of teachers and professors with Eastern or Western leanings in schools and universities,- educators who were one hundred percent opposed to Islamic culture.

With all the above-mentioned issues and with scores of other problems such as the isolation of the clergy and perverting their minds with poisonous propaganda, it is nothing short of a miracle that the nation was able to rise up in unison with the cry of Allah-o-Akbar (God is the greatest). In every hamlet, village, town and city all over the country, by stunning acts of devotion and sacrifice, the nation drove out all domestic and foreign elements and agents of power and took the destiny of the country in its own hands. Therefore, without a doubt, the Islamic Revolution of Iran is singular and unique among all revolutions; unique in its emergence, in its fighting character and in its incentive for uprising and revolt. Certainly this was a sacred gift, a divine present from God to the oppressed and pillaged Iranian nation.

2- Islam and Islamic government are divine phenomena the utilization of which insures the happiness of man for all times in this and in the next world. They can put an end to injustice and corruption and help man achieve ideal perfection. Contrary to non-monotheistic schools of thought, Islam is concerned with and supervises man in all his individual, social, economic and military affairs. It does not overlook the smallest issue that affects the education and the moral and material progress of man and his society. Islam has pointed out the obstacles to social change and evolution of man and makes every effort to remove them.

And, now that by the grace of God, the Islamic Republic has been initiated in Iran by the mighty hand of its people and Islam and its progressive laws and tenets are the concern of this Islamic government, it is up to the nation to insure their implementation in all aspects of life and to safeguard them well as the preservation of Islam takes precedence over all else. All Prophets from Adam (as) to Muhammad (PBUH) have consistently taken care of and made sacrifices for it (monotheism). After the Prophet of Islam the Innocent Imams strove hard for its preservation and some gave their lives for it.

It is now incumbent on the Iranian nation, as custodian of this divine trust that has formally been proclaimed in Iran, and which has given magnificent fruits in such a short time, to do all that is necessary for its enforcement and maintenance. It is to be hoped that this divine trust will radiate to other Islamic lands from Iran and all Muslim governments and nations may come to a common understanding of the issue, and as a result, they will thereby cut off the hands of the world-mongering super-powers and criminals of history and remove their hold on the oppressed peoples of the world.

AS I approach my last breath, I feel it is my duty to state some of the points that are involved in the preservation and perpetuation of this divine trust (the Sovereignty of Islam) and some of the things that endanger and threaten it, for the present and future generations. May God bless all with success and happiness!

a) – Without a doubt, the secret of the survival of the revolution is the same as the secret of its victory. The nation knows this secret and the future generations will read about it in history texts. Its two essential components are the supreme divine purposes and aims of the sovereign rule of Islam and the coming together of the entire nation in unity of word and expression for the sake of the same purposes and incentives.

My advice to all generations, present and future, is that if you desire Gods sovereignty to continue and domestic as well as foreign colonialization of your lands and exploitation of your resources be curtailed, do not under any circumstance, and abandon this divine incentive that the Holy Qur’an has emphasized. Forsaking this theocentric incentive and goal, which is the secret of the victory of the Revolution and its survival, will result in dispute, disunity and a forgotten purpose and objective. It is because of this that trumpets of propaganda are sounding off everywhere sowing the seeds of discord and disunity by distortion of facts and outright falsehood and lies. Millions upon millions of dollars are being spent for such mean purposes by corrupt powers that own or control the mass media and by their local stooges. The constant visits by the enemies of the Islamic Revolution to the region, has this purpose in mind. Among such visitors, however, one sometimes sees heads of Islamic states who can think of nothing but their personal interests, as well as pseudo-clergymen. These elements blindly hand themselves over to the U.S.A. That of which the Iranian nation and Muslims everywhere must be mindful of, now and ever after, is the importance of neutralizing the vicious disuniting propaganda. My advice to all is that you should react to such plots and, by all means possible, render your unity (of word and purpose) increasingly more solid and thus disappoint the heathen and hypocrites.

b)- One of the major plots of the century especially of the last few decades and particularly after the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, which is clearly manifest, in the multi-dimensional propaganda launched, has the aim of disappointing Muslim peoples especially the Iranian nation with Islam. Sometimes with explicit but crude argument it is claimed that the laws of 1400 years ago cannot efficiently administer the modern world. At other times they contend that Islam is a reactionary religion that opposes any new ideas and manifestations of civilization and that, at the present, no country can remain aloof to world civilization in its various aspects. Sometimes, in fiendish yet foolish propaganda jargon, they claim the sanctity of Islam and maintain that divine religions have the nobler task of purging egos, of inviting the people to asceticism, monkhood, and morality and of admonishing them against the world of matter. They say that prayers bring men closer to the Lord; that politics and government are opposed to these great moral purposes and are contrary to the traditions of the great prophets.

Unfortunately, such propaganda has impressed some of the clergy and faithful Muslims who are not properly tutored in the teachings of Islam. This influence has been so marked that some simple-minded Muslims have considered involvement in government and politics a grave sin and evil. This is a calamity by which Islam is affected. The first group, it must be said, either knows nothing about government, law and politics or else they sham ignorance. The enforcement of law is based on equity and justice; on prevention of cruelty and dictatorship- on the extension of personal and social fair play; on prevention of vice, deprivation and perversion; on liberty, reason, independence, and self-sufficiency; on prevention of colonialisation, exploitation and serfdom; on penance and the limits punishment (hudood… and taazirat…)- on Qisas…or retaliation in kind and on the basis of implementation of justice to control corruption and vice in the world.

Politics and administration of a community according to reason, equity and justice, etc. is not something to wear away or erode in the course of history and man’s life on earth. Claiming such a thing amounts to arguing that principles of reason and mathematics must be altered today and replaced by some other rules. It is absurd to say that social justice which was to be practiced from the beginning of creation and crimes and cruelties which were to be avoided can no longer be exercised in the age of atom. The contention that Islam is opposed to innovations is as foolish as Muhammad Reza Pahlavis claim that in this age they want to travel by quadrupeds.

This is nothing but an inane accusation because, if by innovations and new features of civilization is meant inventions, new discoveries, industrial progress and the like, let them consider the fact that neither Islam nor any other monotheistic religion has ever opposed such things. Rather, science and industry are very much emphasized in the Qur’an and Islam. However, if by modernism and civilization is meant, as some professional intellectuals claim, freedom of vice, prostitution and even homo-sexuality, then all divine religions, men of reason and learning are opposed to it, even though some individuals with pro-western or pro-eastern leanings may blindly promote these things.

However, the second category of the foes of Islam who entertain more vicious plots claim that religion and politics are not compatible and cannot be combined. These ignorant individuals must realize that the Holy Qur’an and the traditions of the Prophet of Islam contain more lessons, decrees and commands on the rule of government and politics than they do on any other issue. Indeed a good many Islamic laws concerning worship have political aspects as well. Neglecting such aspects has often resulted in catastrophes. The prophet of Islam founded a government just like any other except that it seeks to promote social justice and equity. The early caliphs of Islam enjoyed extensive rule. The sovereign rule of Hazrat Ali (as) with the same objective, but on a much wider scale and dimension, is all too well known in history. However, after Ali (as) gradually the rule of Islam became nominal. Even today there are many governments which claim to be Islamic but rarely pay Islam even a lip service.

In this my final will and testament I merely mention these points in passing and hope that historians and sociologists will make Muslims see their mistakes in this respect. The contention that the prophets and Imams have been only concerned with moral and spiritual issues and government, being concerned with secular or temporal matters, has been rejected by them is woefully wrong. Adhering to this unfounded contention leads to corruption of Islamic nations and opens the way for the blood-thirsty colonialist.

What is taboo is the satanic, dictatorial rule; domination, thirst for power and lust for wealth; in short all the worldly things that make man forsake the Lord. But, divine rule is in the interest of the dispossessed and oppressed and seeks to prevent cruelty and injustice. It establishes social justice as did Sulaiman lbn Davood … and the Prophet of Islam (PBUH). Maintenance of justice in the society is a duty in Islam and is regarded as a sublime act of adoration and worship. Wholesome and healthy politics that existed in the above rules are necessary. The alert Iranian nation must neutralize the plots mentioned above with Islamic thought and perception. Let writers and preachers rise and help the nation to defeat the plotting devils.

c)- One such conspiracy, a most vicious one, is the widespread rumor claiming that: The Islamic Republic has not done anything for the good of the people! Poor people! They made sacrifices to overthrow the despotic regime of the Taghoot (despot), little did they know that they would emerge with a worse regime. The arrogant have become more arrogant and the mustazaf in more oppressed. Prisons are full of youths who are our hopes for the future. Torture has become more inhumane and severe than before. Every day the number of men are executed, – all in the name of Islam. They had better not call this system The Islamic Republic. Circumstances are worse than at the time of Reza Khan… and his son. People are suffering hardships; prices are soaring to high heavens; authorities are leading the regime to communism; people’s properties are being confiscated: freedom in all forms has been withheld from the people, etc. Such ratings are proof of planned conspiracies that are carried out daily in some form in some location, town or borough; in taxi cabs, in buses, at small gatherings, etc, and as one false rumor wears off a fresh one takes its place.

Unfortunately the clergy, unaware of the satanic plots, come in contact with agents of discord and think that their incantations are true. The fact is that many of those who listen to the rumors and believe them are persons who lack knowledge of world conditions, of world revolutions and of post-revolutionary events and their inevitable concomitant problems. They lack knowledge of the changes that have occurred in favor of Islam and so, when they hear such rumors they deliberately or by mistake, accept them. I urge everyone not to make hasty conclusion or damning criticism until you have done the following: made a study of world conditions and a comparison between the Islamic Revolution and other revolutions and the post-revolutionary problems in which those nations and countries had sunk; acquainted yourselves with the circumstances of the countries and nations before, during, and after their revolutions; considered the various serious problems brought about by Reza Khan and worse than that by his son Muhammad-Reza, problems including: dependencies of all kinds on foreign powers; bribery and dishonesty of government personnel; bankrupt economy; vice in all forms including prostitution; conditions in the various ministries and the army; cinemas, cabarets and houses of ill-fame; conditions in schools and universities; problems of the youth, the women, the dedicated clergy, the liberals and the chaste but oppressed women before and after the Revolution; conditions of the mosques during the time of Taghoot; the records of persons sentenced to death then and now; considered the circumstances of the collectors of wealth, of capitalists, of real estate manipulators; of the courts of justice and their records; made a study and comparison between the present and former judges and their rulings; compared the representatives of the Majles (The Islamic Consultative Assembly) before and after the Revolution; compared the work of the provincial governors in both regimes; studied and compared the activities of the Reconstruction Jihad … in rural areas today with conditions that existed in such areas before the Revolution; considered the entire work of this regime in the span of last few years, with the years it spent at war, with the work of the former regime in more than 50 years of absolute rule having no refugee-problems, no war-torn towns, villages or cities and no problems of disabled veterans, no homeless families, no problems of an economic blockade, no plots by America or its local and alien agents, no multi-million number of Afghan and Iraqi refugees no problem with a lack of experienced propagandists and religious judges in sufficient number; and considered the lawlessness caused by the perverts, the enemies and even by some untutored friends; and considered countless other issues and drawn comparisons.

Do not levy your tirades of criticism on anyone or anything unless you have made the necessary studies and comparisons. Have mercy on Islam, the Islam which has just re-emerged as a toddler, after centuries of suffering under despots, wrapped up in ominous covers provided by the animosity and opposition of local and foreign foes! Would it not be better if you could, instead of associating yourselves with anarchist and terrorist groups and siding with them indirectly, consider the families of the victims of terror among the dedicated innocent clergy and other innocent servants?!

I have never said, and do not say now, that today Islam is practiced in this Republic in All its dimensions and that no one acts against Islamic laws here either through ignorance, lack of discipline or because of some personal complex. But, I do say that the Legislative, the Judiciary and the Executive powers are doing all they can to Islamize this country and they are supported in their efforts by tens of millions of citizens. If this obstructionist, trouble-making minority would come along and, in the spirit of fair play, support such efforts, the realization of the objective shall come about much easier and faster. If they don’t join up, they may rest assured that the masses are informed, alert and concerned and they shall defeat that minority. I dare say that today the Iranian nation is more righteous and upright than the people of Hejaz at the time of Muhammad (PBUH) and the people of Kufeh at the time of Ali (as) and Hussein (as). When the Prophet (PBUH) was still alive the people of Hejaz disobeyed him and feigned excuses for not going to the war fronts. For this God has rebuked them sternly in the Sura Al-Tawbah (Repentance) of the Qur’an. They accused the Prophet (PBUH) of lying so much that he damned them for it from the pulpit. The people of Kufeh mistreated and disobeyed ‘Ali (as) to the extent that his complaints against them are recorded in many books. The maltreatment of Imam Hussein by the people of Kufeh culminated in historys greatest epic event, the martyrdom of Hussein (as). And those who did not participate in the act of martyrdom of Imam Hussein either fled or sat by and watched the bloody crime take place. But, today, we see how the Iranian nation wholeheartedly supports its armed forces, the Sepah … and Basij … recruits and volunteers. We see all these elements, including the tribal peoples and the militia, making unimaginable sacrifices at the war fronts as well as behind the lines. We are delighted to observe and enjoy the invaluable assistance rendered by our people from all over the country. We are proud to see the survivors of our martyrs and the disabled veterans and their meet all of us with open arms and such reassuring mien and words. All this is due to their unwavering faith in Allah and to their love for Him and Islam and to their assurance of the eternal life, while they are neither in the company of the Prophet (PBUH) nor accompanying an Innocent Imam (as). Their assurance and incentives are elsewhere, – in their faith in the unseen, the Invisible (ghaib). This is the secret of victory and success in their various dimensions. Islam should take pride in having raised and trained such followers and sons. All of us are proud to be in the presence of such a nation in such an age as this.

I hereby counsel those who, for any reason, oppose the Islamic Republic, the youth, the girls and the boys who are exploited by the perverts and the hypocrites, to maintain an open mind and then sit in judgment of the propaganda of those who wish to see the Islamic Republic collapse; to study the mode of conduct of such individuals toward the people, toward the governments and groups and toward their own supporters; to carefully observe the shifts in their attitudes and positions on various occasions and compare same with the conduct of the survivors of those who were martyred by the hypocrites, and then decide which group truly supports the oppressed and the deprived peoples in the community. Authentic tape recordings of both pro and con groups are on hand and will help you with your task of comparison and evaluation.

Brothers! You will not read these lines while I live, you may read them after I am gone and am no longer among you to want to say things to gain your favor and support.

But, as you are worthy young people I would like to see you spend your time in the path of God, for noble Islam and for the Islamic Republic, so that you may attain happiness in this and in the next world. I ask God to guide you to the straight path and to forgive our past deeds. I advise you to make the wish when in seclusion, for He is the Guide, the Merciful.

My counsel and recommendation to the noble Iranian nation and to all the nations who suffer under corrupt governments and are chained by great powers is this: cherish as your most precious thing the blessing that you have gained by your great jihad … (crusade) and by the blood of your worthy young men. Guard it well and preserve it as a divine favor and great trust from your Lord. Make every effort to safeguard it, do not worry about difficulties if any should arise. Remember: If you help Allah, He will help you and make you strong (The Holy Qur’an , Sura 47, Muhammad, Verse 7). Help the Islamic Republic with all your hearts and do your utmost to solve some of its problems. Consider the Majles (The House of parliament) and the government as your very own and protect them as you would your loved ones. Likewise, I recommend this nation to the care and attention of the Majles and government authorities who should serve the people well, particularly the deprived and oppressed who are our true benefactors. These are the people who made the formation of the Islamic Republic possible and insure its continuity. The authorities should regard themselves as belonging to the people and recognize the people as parts of their own beings. Always condemn the despotic rule of the UN cultured plundering bullies by humane methods worthy of an Islamic government.

My suggestion to the Muslim nations is that you consider the government of the Islamic Republic and the crusading Iranian nation as your examples. Do away with your own despotic governments unless, they bow to the demand of your own nations which is the same as the demand of the Iranian nation. The dependent puppet governments, who are either pro-East or pro-West, are the cause of the misfortunes of the Muslims. I recommend with emphasis that you pay no attention to the propaganda sirens of the antagonists of Islam and of the Islamic Republic as they always try to force Islam to the sidelines so as to insure the interests of the super-powers.

d)- One of the satanic plots of the major colonialists and exploiters, that has been in force for many decades and reached its apex in Iran in the reign of Reza Khan and was continued by Muhammad Reza, was to isolate the clergy by different methods including pressure, suppression, imprisonment, unfrocking and various forms of abuse, insult and derision. Another technique is to create friction, disharmony and animosity between university circles and the clergy. Extensive propaganda was used to achieve such tension and it was effective because of the ignorance of both groups of the devilish plotting of the super-powers. Grade school, high school and university teachers, tutors, principals, instructors, lecturers, professors, deans, etc were selected from among persons with pro-Eastern or pro-Western leanings. These educators were religious perverts. Devout and virtuous educators formed a small minority. The purpose was to train the future authorities of the state from childhood through adulthood in such a manner as to hate religions in general and Islam in particular and to despise religious enthusiasts especially the Muslim clergy. Muslim clergymen were accused of being British agents, supporters of capitalists, land-mongers and reactionaries opposed to civilization and progress. At the same time they threw the fear of students in the clergy and the educated university scholars with malicious propaganda accusing them of atheism, libertinism and opposition to all manifestations of religion. These conditions lined up the government authorities against religions including Islam and its clergy. The situation placed the clergymen and the religious masses, who cared for their religion and its clergy, against the government and all that was part of it. The deep gap between government and the nation, and between the university and the clergy opened the way to the exploiters and the plunderers so much that the fate of the people and the country’s resources fell into their hands and pockets and the nation suffered as we all witnessed.

And now that by the grace of God and the sacrifices of all the nation including the clergy, the university people, the businessmen (the bazaar), laborers, agricultural and industrial workers and other segments, the fetters of bondage have been removed, the shackles of serfdom broken, the powers of arrogance repelled and the country virtually sequestered and saved from their clutches and from the clutches of their domestic puppets, I would like to recommend to the present and future generations not to slacken their efforts. Let the university men and the youth strengthen their links of friendship and mutual understanding with the clergy and the students of religious sciences. Never overlook the plotting of the perfidious enemy, provide counsel and guidance whenever you see someone trying to sow the seeds of discord and disunity. If your counsel to such individuals is not effective, turn away from them, isolate them and do not let their machinations and conspiracies take root as prevention is easier than cure. Students in both the theological schools and in the universities should be alert to the insidious propaganda diffused by their teachers and professors. As soon as you hear an instructor says or explains things in a manner that distorts the truth and tends to pervert the mind, reject him and turn him away from your classes. This suggestion is directed primarily toward the clergy and students of religious sciences in theological centers. Conspiracy in a university has a particular dimension and depth. Both categories of students, being the brains of the society, should beware such plotting.

e)- One of the most effective conspiracies that has, unfortunately, left an indelible mark on the nations, including our own, is the alienation of the peoples of colonized countries with their true selves. In other words Westerners or Eastern block peoples have become estranged with their own cultures and they have come to regard the peoples of the super-powers as being of races and cultures superior to their own. They look upon the super-powers as their Qiblah (direction to which Muslims face when saying daily prayers, i.e., the Kaba in Mecca) and think that affiliation with one of the two poles of power is indispensable to themselves. The question has a long, sad story and the blows we have received and are still receiving from it are devastating and fatal. A most unhappy point is that the colonialists have bared the oppressed peoples under their rule from all progress and have turned them into consumer nations.

The colonial powers have so frightened us through their satanic might and advancement that we dare not venture into any initiatives. Rather, we have submitted our minds to them and placed our fates in their hands and have become their followers with our own eyes and ears shut. This vacuity and artificial mental inanity has prevented us from trusting in and relying on our own knowledge and thinking and made us blind followers of the East or the West. And whenever and wherever we did have and made manifest our own initiative, our own industry and culture these came under such heavy barrages of criticism and ridicule by Communist or Westernized writers and commentators that the net effect was to suppress our native abilities. Foreign customs and ways, no matter how trite, hackneyed or redundant, were promoted and propagated and imposed on nations through actions, words and eulogies. For example, if books contain a number of foreign words and terms they are accepted right away with wonder and awe regardless of their meaning. The writer of such a book is deemed erudite and broad-minded. Whatever is tinted with Western or Eastern terminology is good, noteworthy and a mark of progress and civilization. If elaborated in native terms, it is regarded as decadent.

… Our children whose names smack of foreign Western roots are honored and progressive. If they carry traditional names, then they are looked upon as retarded. Streets, alleys, firms, drugstores libraries, textile materials, and other commodities, if manufactured locally, should have foreign names so that people may be pleased with them and receive them well. Manifesting Western ways in all facets of life and in all aspects of social intercourse is cause for pride and regarded as tokens of civilization and progress. Meanwhile, traditional modes of conduct and customs are deemed as retrograde and ancestor-worshiping. Going abroad for treatment of minor ailments that are easily cured at home is the thing to do, disappointing our own scientists and physicians.

Making a trip to England, France, USA or Moscow enhances ones dignity while going to Mecca to perform the Hajj or visiting other holy shrines is considered backward and old fashioned. Disregard for all that is related to religion and morality is a sign of open-mindedness and civilization whereas commitment to these issues is a sign of being backward and antiquated. I do not say that we have everything. In the course of recent history especially during the recent decades we have been deprived of any progress. The treacherous statesmen of the Pahlavi regime and their propaganda belittled every domestic product, created inferiority complexes in us and withheld all means for advancement. The importation of all types of goods and commodities from abroad provided channels for our young men and women and specially our youth to preoccupy themselves with such trivial things. They became engaged in childish competitions and pursuits with imported objects as toilet articles, and games of chance. At the same time they became consumers of such things as well as items of luxury which has a long, sad story. No effort was spared in diverting the attention and the minds of our youth from thinking about their own fate and the destiny of their country.

And, now that the Iranian nation is to a large extent freed from such traps and the deprived generations have risen to the occasion to create and build, at their own initiative commodities many examples of which we witnessed such as aircraft spare part that all thought could not be manufactured locally and all hands were extended to East or West for such items. This is because economic blockade and the compelling conditions of the imposed war …made their domestic production without assistance of foreign experts possible. Such items were produced more economically and they satisfied our needs. Our people have proved that they can do things if they want to.

Our people should be alert and watchful lest the East or West affiliated politician draw us back towards the international pilfers. Take decisive action to do away with all dependencies. Be sure that the Aryan or Arab races are in no way less endowed than the Europeans, American or Russian races. If we succeed in finding our true selves and not let despair overtake us and rely on ourselves and expect nothing of others, we shall be able, in the long run, to do and make everything. This is possible provided you rely c Almighty Allah and yourselves and sever all dependency (on others. Moreover, you should work hard to achieve an honorable life and escape the influence and domination c others. It is incumbent on the authorities both in the present and the future governments to cherish and appreciate their experts and specialists and encourage them through moral and material support to make initiatives. It is necessary that harmful consumer goods be not imported. Let the people (do with what they have until they can make everything themselves. I ask the youth, boys and girls not to compromise their freedom, independence and human values for luxury, pleasure-seeking and other vices that are( offered to you by the corrupt agents of the West or the East Experience has taught us that they think of nothing expect your degeneration, your indifference toward your own destinies and the fate of your country, control of your natural resources, your consumer potential, your dependence, in short your colonization and exploitation This is one reason they try to keep us in a state of backwardness and underdevelopment and, as they say, a semi-primitive men.

f)- One of their major plots, that was noted before, is to take over the education centers especially the universities whose trained output must have the control of the country, in their hands. Their methods with respect to the clergy an( the schools of Islamic sciences is different from their method in respect of the universities and high school, Their plan is to remove the clergy from the scenes and to isolate them. During the time of Reza Khan considerable torture and persecution was used to achieve this but results were contradictory. With propaganda, false accusations, and devilish plans they tried to segregate the educated and the so-called intellectual layers during the Reza khans rule using torture and persecution. This was continued during the time of Muhammad Reza, viciously but without torture. As to the university, their plan is to alienate the youth with their own values and culture and draw them over to the East or the West and to select the statesmen from among them, institute these selected individuals in position of authority and do whatever they want with country, its resources and people by the hands of their puppets while the isolated, despised and defeated clergy looks impotently on. This is the best way to hold a nation in a backward state and to pilfer the countries under domination because, it is easy for the superpowers and is of no cost to them while all that there is goes to their pockets quietly through the national circles. And, now that the universities and teacher training colleges are being purged, it is necessary that we all help the authorities and not ever let these institutions deviate from the right course and take necessary action as soon as we notice a deviation step by an authority. This vital task must, in the first place, be carried out by the young men of the universities, teachers and colleges. Saving the university from deviation and perversion is saving the nation and the country. I urge all our youth and the young people in the first place and their parents and friends in the next place, and the statesmen and intellectuals who care for the country, to participate wholeheartedly in this important task that maintains the safety of your country, and to entrust the universities to the next generation. I counsel all the successive generations to guard the universities against defection to the East or to the West, as this necessary for the salvation of yourselves, the country the beloved Islam. This humane, Islamic act severs the hands of the superpowers off the country and makes them lose all hope. May Allah bless and keep you!

g) The commitment of the representatives of the Islamic Consultative Assembly is a major issue, we witnessed the damage that Islam and Iran suffered at the hands of the corrupt and perverted representatives of the former Majles: (House of Representatives) since the constitutional regime was initiated in the country through the era of the Pahlavi rulers. Such Majles representatives were worthies! Individuals, servants of foreign powers and they betrayed the country and the nation. During the fifty years of the tyrannical rule of the Pahlavi regime, a sham majority of Majles representatives was forged which carried out the (dictates of the U.S.S.R and England and of the U.S.A in recent decades. After the constitution was initiated in Iran its major articles were almost always ignored. Before Reza Khan came to power, the country was in the hands of number of treacherous pro-Western feudal overlords. They came the bloody Pahlavi regime and its cruel agents.

Now that by grace of God and the determined an, spirited endeavors of the nation, the destiny of the country has fallen in the hands of the people, their true representatives are elected and sent to the Majles without foreign interference and without intervention of the government or feudal khans. It is to be hoped that with their dedication to Islam and the interests of the country, all sorts of perversion will be avoided. My recommendation to the present and future generation is that they choose virtuous, upright educated persons in every election. Let these be persons with commitment to Islam and to the Islamic Republic; persons who come mostly from the deprived middle classes of the society and are not perverted nor gone astray from the straight path; individuals who are aware of the problems of the day and of the policies of Islam. My advice to the honorable clergy, especially the religious authorities (Marajae) … is that they do not stay away from and show indifference to the elections of representatives to the Majles, nor to the elections of the President of the Islamic Republic. You all saw, and future generations shall hear, how the politicians, who were followers of the East or the West, forced out from active politics the clergymen who were greatly influential in laying the foundations of the constitution in the country and how the clergy were deceived by such politicians and came to regard involvement in the affairs of state and of the Muslims as being outside the parameters of their position and status. And, consequently they relinquished the realm (of politics) to pro-West or pro-East elements who did to the constitutional law, the country and Islam damages which takes a long time to remedy.

Now that, thanks God, the obstacles are removed no excuses remain. A free atmosphere is made available for involvement and participation in the affairs of state. It is a great sin to compromise the affairs of the Muslims. Each and everyone should be, to the extent possible, available for service to Islam and to the country. Everyone should, as much as he can, cheek and thwart the spread of the influence of the pro-West and pro-East elements and the influence of those who deviate from the great school of Islam. All should realize that the opponents of Islam and of Muslim countries, that is, the superpowers, the international thieves, infiltrate into our country and into our Islam states subtly and by degrees and manipulate the people into colonialization. You must all be alert and vigilant and as soon as you see such a state, act to resist and neutralize it. Give them no time! May God help and assist you!

I ask the present and future representatives of the Islamic Consultative Assembly not to honorable reject the credentials of any deviate delegate who captures the votes of his constituents through fraud and political intrigue. Let no sabotaging element work his way into the Majles. I advise the recognized religious minorities to learn lessons from the Majles sessions of the Pahlavi regime and elect (representatives who are dedicated to their own religion a committed to the Islamic Republic, persons who are (dependents of the world-mongering powers, persons with no leaning towards any deviations, forged or atheist school of ideology. I ask all Majles delegates to treat or another with utmost goodwill and brotherhood and take care lest some enacted law contradict Islam. Be faithful I Islam one and all so as to attain to happiness in this world and in the hereafter. My advice to the Council ( Guardianship) …(68) now and in the future, is to perform its Islamic and national duties with candor and take great care not to be influenced by any power and to cancel any law, rule or regulation that is opposed to Islam and the constitutional law …(69) Also, the Council should be attentive to the exigencies of the country that must be dealt with sometimes by secondary decrees and sometimes by the decrees of the Walayate-e faqih (guardianship of the Theologian or Jurisconsult). My advice to the honorable nation is that it participate actively in all areas relating to the elections, whether presidential elections, election of delegates to the Majles or elections of experts to determine leader. The choice and nomination of such representatives must be based on solid and creditable criteria. For example, if, by oversight, election of experts to determine the council of leadership, or the leader, be not based on religious laws and standards, irreparable damage to the religion and the country may ensue, in which case all shall be responsible before God. Thus, non-participation in elections by the people from the ‘Ulema (men learned in Islamic laws) and authorities (Marajae) down to other strata including the bazaar (business world), workers, farmers, office workers and others, indicates their irresponsibility toward the destinies of the country and Islam whether in the present or future generations. It is very likely that absence from the political arena and non-participation in the affairs of state and elections, in certain instances, may constitute a most grievous and capital sin.

Therefore, all must bear in mind that Prevention is better than cure. If necessary action is not taken in advance, the control of affairs get out of all hands. This is a reality we have all experienced after the constitutional government was proclaimed in the country. No remedial action is better and more effective than the people nation-wide performing the tasks and duties assigned them in accordance with the constitution and Islamic law and standards. In elections for president and the Majles delegates, voters must consult educated, open-minded persons. Such persons must be aware of the channels action. They should not be dependents of a super-power. They should be dedicated to Islam and the Islamic Republic and be renowned for their virtue. Such consultation must: also be entered into with dedicated and chaste clergymen Care must be taken to insure that those elected as President of the Islamic state and as delegates to the Majles, are individuals who have felt and experienced the circumstances of the deprived and oppressed classes of the society and are concerned with the well- being of these groups. The president and the Majles delegates should (hail from the high-ranking, land-mongering capitals.. classes who are sunken in carnal pleasures and are unable I feel nor understand the bitterness and pains of the deprive( the barefooted and the oppressed human beings.

We must realize that if the Majles delegates and the president are competent, most difficulties will emerge and if they do, they will be solved without delay. This applies to the election of Experts determine the Council of Leadership or the leaden F( if the Experts are elected by the nation with care and consultation with the prominent ‘Ulema and religious authorities (Marjae Taqlid) of the time, if learned dedicated and virtuous persons go to the Assembly Experts, then, most of the major problems will not arise because of the selection of the most competent individuals as The council of leadership or leader and if they do, they’ll be dealt with dispatch and exactitude. In view of Articles 109 and 110 of the constitutional law (of the I.R.1) concerning the grave duty of the nation in electing the Experts and the Delegates to determine the leader or the Council of Leadership it becomes clear that gross harm will accrue to Islam, the country and the Islamic Republic by the least oversight and negligence in their related elections. Because of the extreme importance of the probability of their incidence, their occurrence surely entails divine responsibility.

My advice to the leader and the Council of Leadership in this era which is the era of invasion and aggression by the superpowers and their stooges, domestic or alien against the Islamic Republic, indeed against Islam, and, to the future leaders and councils is to devote and dedicate themselves to the service of Islam and the mustazafin (the meek, the deprived and the oppressed) and of the Islamic Republic. Do not think that leadership (or guardianship) is per se a gift or an exalted position for you. Rather, think of it as a heavy and grave duty in which errors due to mean and lowly considerations will subject the perpetrator to life-long shame in this and to the wrath of God in the next world. I beg of the Lord and supplicate to Him that He admits us to His Presence having emerged from this trial with success. This danger exists, though to a lesser degree, for presidents, governments, and authorities, now and in the future, each in proportion to his responsibility. These, too, must be mindful of the presence of God and His watchfulness over their actions. May the Lord guide them and show them t right path!

h)- One of the major, essential questions is the issue justice for it is involved in the people’s lives, properties al virtue. My advice to the Leader and to the council (Leadership is to do their utmost in the selection of high. qualified, deeply committed and dedicated persons I (assignment as judges and other judicial positions. Surely persons should be authorities in Islamic religious laws and in politics. I ask the Supreme Judicial Council to clear u the woeful conditions in which all legal and judicial matter had sunk during the former regime, to cut off from this sublime tribune the hands of those who play games with the people’s lives and properties and those judges for whorl Islamic justice has the least meaning. Effect revolutionary changes in the judicial system and replace judges who lack Islamic qualifications with duly qualified judges who, God willing, should be trained by the theological seminaries especially by the holy theological centre of Qum an recommended for assignment to judiciary posts. It is to b hoped that soon enough Islamic Justice shall prevail everywhere in the country. I advise the present and future judges to keep in mind the ahadith (plural for hadith=tradition) ascribed to the Infallible Imams (as) remind yourselves of the instances in which justice has gone amiss and always bear in mind the importance c judgment and the dangers inherent in its abuse. Let those who qualify as magistrates assume the responsibility of the great task and do not let it go and fall in incompetent hand Let all know that as the responsibility of adjudication hazardous and great, its rewards and excellence are also considerable and grand. All must know that assuming the position of a judge is an incumbent religious duty (wajib-e-kafaee).

i) My advice to the holy theological centers, as I often have said, is that opponents of Islam and the Islamic Republic are determined to uproot Islam in every devilish way possible. A major approach they make towards their ominous objective which is dangerous to Islam and the theological centers is to have saboteurs and miscreants infiltrate the theological seminaries. This, in the short term, poses the danger of casting aspersion on the conduct of the theological students, accusing them of having corrupt, perverted and unethical behavior and character. In the long run, the infiltration of theological seminaries by such evil agents and their integration into the ranks and files of the students of these centers, poses the greater danger that some of them may attain to high positions through their machinations. With the help of their sham knowledge of Islamic laws and rules they may work their way into the confidence and hearts of the people and then, at the right time, deliver fatal blows to the theological centers, to Islam and the country.

We are aware that the superpowers have implanted in various communities agents in different disguises such as: nationalists, pan-Iranists, liberals, intellectuals, spiritualists and religious jurists. This last group if given the opportunity is the most insidious and harmful. Such agents live, sometimes for decades, among nations with patience, Islamic conduct and deportment, sham patriotism, spirituality and other designs and carry out their assignments at the most propitious times. During the short span of time since the triumph of the Revolution people have seen such agents under the titles mujahid-e-khalq (lit, fighter of the people), fad khalq (lit, sacrifice of one’s life for the people), the tudeh (masses) and other such appellations. It is necessary that all co-operate in neutralizing such conspiracies. All must be alert to the danger of these agents The purging of the theological seminaries takes priori This is the task of the honorable mudarresin (scholars a teachers of Islamic texts) and the well-known men theological centers with the approval of the Maraja‘ authorities (marja=source, reference) of the time. Perhaps the contention that order lies in disorderliness is one the vicious ruses of these plotters.

At any rate, my advice is that it is necessary in all ages especially in the present era, in which plots and intrigues have increased, to rise and bring order to the centers theology. Let the students, the scholars, and the instructs spend time and, by careful, sound planning, purge a preserve the major theological centers especially the Qum Theological Centre. It is necessary that the honorable ‘Ulema and mudarresin prevent perversion and distorts from creeping into the teaching materials concerning Fiqh (Religious jurisprudence). Let there be no deviation Fiqh (the methods of the grand foqaha (plural for faqih, learned authorities of religious law) in the teaching of the principles of Fiqh for, only in this way can the real Islamic Fiqh preserved. Efforts should be made for a daily increase in conciseness of views and investigative methods and research and creative work.

Traditional Fiqh, which is the heritage of our worthy ancestors, must be preserved and maintained. Deviation from it weakens the foundations of research. Let research studies (in Fiqh) pile up and develop into tomes. With respect to other sciences, to be sure, research programs should be arranged with a view to the needs of the country and Islam. Men should be trained to do research work at the highest levels and in as many areas as needed. Research, its learning, teaching and practice must be made available to all. Islamic moral sciences such as ethics, ego-purging, mystical experiences, etc. should be covered in the course of such educational research. This is especially necessary with the sayr-o-sulook-e-el-Allah purification of the soul and the ego better known as the jihad-e Akbar or the greater crusade. May Allah help us achieve it!

j)- One of the areas that need purging, reform and care is the Executive Power. Sometimes beneficial and progressive laws are enacted by the Majles, seconded by the Guardianship Council (Shuraye Negahban) and communicated by the related cabinet minister to the proper administrative unit or department for implementation but is thwarted by bureaucracy, by incompetent personnel, by open violation of rules and regulations. Such actions are sometimes deliberately taken to create dissatisfaction and unrest in the community.

My advice to the concerned cabinet ministers, now and for the future, is that they and their employees are living on public funds and therefore must all be true public servants especially to the Mustazafin (the oppressed). Creating uneasiness for the public, not doing ones duties, is interdicted and may incur the wrath of the Lord. You all need the nations support, especially that of the oppressed classes. It was by their popular support that victory could be achieved and the hands of tyrants cut off from the country and its wealth. If you become deprived of this support someday, the oppressors shall turn you out just the way ousted the oppressive monarchical system. In view of the tangible facts you should make efforts to satisfy the nation thus and earn their confidence. Avoid inhuman un-Islamic conduct. With this motive I recommend that our future cabinet ministers take great care in the select of provincial governors and make sure that such men competent, wise, and agreeable, dedicated to Islam and Islamic Republic and can get along with the people so 1 peace and tranquility become the pervasive rule in country. It must be remembered that although every cabs minister has the responsibility of Islamization regulation of the affairs of his own area of responsibility. Yet, some of the ministries have special characterize Take for example, our embassies abroad:

Since the early days after the victory of the Revolution have often counseled the ministers of foreign affairs al the pro-taghoot (inclined towards the taghoot or tyrant leanings of our embassies abroad and the need for t purge and conversion into embassies worthy of the Islamic Republic. Some of them, however, either could not or did not want to take positive steps. But, the present minister is hopeful that this aim will be achieved by perseverance in due time, he has taken some steps in that direction. hoped that in time these efforts will bear positive rest advise the foreign ministers now and for the future your responsibilities are heavy indeed, whether in purging your offices, departments or embassies or in the area of foreign policy, preservation of our independence, securing the interests of the country and in the area of having good relations with the countries that do not intend to interfere in our affairs. Avoid anything that may indicate dependence in its various aspects and dimensions. Know that dependence on others though it may appear useful and even yield rich fruit now, in the long run, it will corrupt the country at the roots. Make every effort to improve relations with Islamic countries and to awaken their statesmen and invite all to unity and alliance for God is with you.

My advice to the Muslim nations is: do not wait for external help in reaching your objective which is the implementation of Islamic teachings and tenets. You yourselves must rise and undertake this vital work which will realize your independence and freedom. Let the grand ‘Ulema (outstanding scholars) and the honorable preachers in the Islamic states call on their governments to extricate themselves from dependence on big foreign powers and come to an understanding with their own nations. In this way victory shall be yours. Invite the nations to unity and alliance. Avoid racism which is against the teachings of the holy Qur’an. Shake hands in friendship with your fellow believers in any country and from any race they may be for the great Islamic Faith has termed you all brothers. If, by the grace of God, this spirit of brotherhood-in-faith be realized, you will one day see that the Muslims constitute the world’s greatest power. God willing, this brotherhood may manifest itself soon.

My advice to the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance at all times, especially at the present, which has its own particular characteristics, is to act to propagate truth versus falsehood and to present the face of the Islamic Republic. Having severed the hand of the superpowers from our country we are not subjected to the propaganda tirades and barrages of mass media affiliated with the superpowers. Consider the baseless accusations levied against us by the write and speakers of these mass media of communication (belonging to the superpowers. Regrettably, most of the Islamic states of the region, who should, by the command of Islam, show us brotherhood, have risen opposition to us and to Islam and placed themselves the service of the world-mongers for aggression an invasion against us from every side and quarter. And our propaganda is weak while today the world revolves around publicity and propaganda.

The so-called intellectual writers are drawn to one or the other camp and their ambitions, selfishness and seeking exclusiveness do not let them think of the independence and freedom of their own country. These factors do not allow the writers to consider, even for a moment, the interests in their own nations and draw comparison between freedom and independence as enjoyed in the Islamic Republic today, with that which existed in the former tyrannical regime Such writers and speakers do not stop to weigh and measure the worthy and honorable life in this country today, including the partial losses in comfort and physical( pleasures, against and in comparison with that which had in the former regime which was steeped in dependent servitude, praising and eulogizing those nuclei corruption and vice; otherwise, they would desist from bringing such false and totally inaccurate accusations against this newly born Islamic Republic and use their pens and speech against the taghoots in favor of this nation and government.

The issue of propaganda is not exclusively the business of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Rather, it is a duty incumbent on all writers, speakers, artists and scholars. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs should see to it that the embassies are supplied with public relations literature to reveal the radiant face of Islam to the entire world. If the real face of Islam, which the holy Qur’an and Tradition (sunnat) have invited all to its various dimensions, would emerge from under the veils (spread over it) by the opponents of Islam and be relieved from the misunderstandings of friends, Islam would overwhelm the whole world and its banner of honor would be unfurled everywhere. How sad it is that Muslims should be in possession of a most valuable gem, matchless the world over and be not able to present it, a most dear thing that each man, by his own intuition, is in search of and yet, its holders themselves are not aware of it, ignore it and sometimes even run away from it.

k)- One of the most important, destiny-shaping issues is the problem of educational institutions from kindergarten through the university. Because of its extraordinary significance, I repeat the matter with a passing remark. The pillaged nation must know that during the past fifty years all the devastating blows to Iran and Islam have come mainly from the universities. If the universities and other education centers were actively engaged in training, purifying and educating our children, our youth and our young men, armed with Islamic and national programs aimed at promoting the interests of the country, homeland would not have been swallowed first by England and then by Russia and America and such ruin agreements or treaties would not have been imposed on deprived nation. Nor would foreign advisors have been admitted to the country and our resources including black gold would not go down the pockets of the satanic powers. Similarly, the Pahlavi family and its dependence (could not have plundered the peoples wealth and built themselves private parks and villas over the bodies of oppressed people at home and abroad. Foreign banks could not become rich with the wages of our deprived people: such Moines could not be spent by the taghoot and offspring and kinsmen on sex orgies and other carnal whims.

If the Majles, the government, the judiciary and other organs had come from Islamic national universities nation would not be facing these ruinous problems today, chaste personalities, with sound Islamic and national inclinations, not like that which is offered as Islam to were dispatched from the universities to the three centers of power, we would be in different circumstances and see different days and our homeland would be a different place; our deprived people would have been saved; cruelty and oppression of the monarchy had been foiled by the people much sooner as would the houses of prostitutes and other centers of vice one of which was enough to corrupt a whole generation of our young people, and would not be heirs to the odious conditions of narcotic addiction.

If our universities were Islamic, humane nationalistic, they would have trained, educated and presented to the society hundreds and thousands of mudarresin (teachers). How sad it was that these institutions were administered and our children trained and educated all, with rare exceptions, by people who were either Westernized or Easternized, persons who were put into vital positions and assigned by special planning and design. Our dear, oppressed and innocent children were, unfortunately, trained by such wolves affiliated with the superpowers and they occupied high legislative, executive and judiciary positions and carried out the orders of the tyrannical Pahlavi regime. However, the universities, thanks God, have been liberated. It is now and forever after, up to the Islamic nation and government to prevent corrupt elements who are adherents of the pervert Eastern or Western ideologies, from infiltrating the teacher-training colleges, the universities and other education institutions. Such elements should be repelled as soon as they take the first step so that difficulties do not set in later. My advice to the students of high schools, colleges, universities is that they themselves rise bravely and oppose all deviation and perversion so that the independence and freedom of the nation and themselves may remain safe and secure.

l)- The entire armed forces including, the army, the navy, the air force, the Sepah, the gendarmerie , the police men of the revolutionary committees the Basij volunteers as well as the enlisted tribal militia, all enjoy special status. They are the mighty arms of the Islamic Republic and are border guards; they insure the safety of the roads, the towns and the rural areas. Indeed they provide peace and security for the nation and merit special attention by the nation, the government and the Majles. All m remember that armed forces, of any description, manipulated and taken advantage of, more than any other group or institutions by the superpowers and the destructive policies. It is by political intrigues through the armed forces that coup d’états are arranged and carried o governments changed and regimes altered. The treacherous profiteers buy off some heads and commanders of such forces and, through them, work out their vicious conspiracies and take over or dominate a country or some innocent oppressed nation, putting an end to their freedom and independence. If military commanders be honorable and chaste, there can be no occasion for a military coup d’état in a country, nor for its occupation and if one do occur, it will be defeated or neutralized by the dedicated commanders.

In Iran this miracle of the age was performed by the hand of the nation. The devout and committed armed force personnel and their chaste and patriotic commanders had considerable part in it. But, today, the accursed war imposed by Saddam Takriti at the instigation, order a through the assistance of the U.S.A and other powers has; after two years, met with the political and military defeat the aggressive Baathist army, its strong supporters a allies. The armed forces, the security police forces, t public militia, the sepahis, with the unsparing help of the people have brought us honor at both the battlegrounds a behind the front lines. The internal intrigues and acts mutiny by the puppets of the East or the West aimed overthrowing the Islamic Republic, were defeated by the youth of the Revolutionary committees, by the Pasdaran .(Revolutionary Guards), by the mobilized volunteers, by the ,police and with the help of the nation. It is these zealous youths who stay awake at nights so that families may rest in ace, may Allah help and assist them!

Therefore, in these last few steps left to the end of my life my brotherly advice to the armed forces who love Islam, who give their lives at the war fronts for the love of leqa-ullah (spiritual perception of or union with the Lord) and who carry out their devotional work everywhere in the country, is that you stay alert and be vigilant and beware the treacherous political ruses of the pro-West or pro-East elements at play behind the scenes! Rest assured that the cutting edges of their blades are, from every side, directed at you more than any other group. They want to make use of you, who have given your lives that the Revolution could triumph and Islam be revived. They want to overthrow the .Islamic Republic and, by shamming Islam and service to country and nation, they mean to separate you from Islam and the nation and toss you down into the laps of one of the two world mongering poles and to cancel and void your efforts and sacrifices by political tricks and by their pretension to Islam and nationalism.

My emphatic counsel to the armed forces is to observe abide by the military rule of non-involvement in politics. Do not join any political party, group or faction. No military man, security policeman, no Revolutionary Guard or Basij may enter into politics. Stay away from politics and you’ll be able to preserve and maintain your military prowess and be immune to internal division and dispute. Military commanders must forbid entrance into political ties by the men under their command. And, as the Revolution belongs to the entire nation, its preservation is also the duty of all. Therefore, the government, the nation, the Defense Council the Islamic Consultative Assembly are all charged with the religious and national responsibility to oppose, from the very beginning, any interference in politics or any action against the interests of Islam and the country by the armed forces, regardless of category, class, branch and rank. Such involvement will surely corrupt and pervert them. It is incumbent on the leader and the Leadership Council to prevent such involvement of the armed forces by decisive action so that no harm may beset the country. My loving advice to all the armed forces in these last days of my earthly life is to remain faithful to Islam, even as you are faithful to it now. Islam is the only true ideology of liberty and independence and Almighty God invites us all to attain to the exalted status of humanity by the light of Islam. Islam saves you, the country and the nation from the shame of dependency and leaning on powers that want only slavery for you and desire to keep your country and your cherished nation retarded and as a consumer market under the yoke of subjugation.

Prefer a humane life of honor with difficulties to the beastly comforts with slavery. Know that as long as you extend your hands begging for advanced industrial needs, the power of initiative and inventiveness will not bloom in you. An objective example we all witness concerns ourselves in the post-revolutionary period. Those of us who seemed to be unable to make or repair anything after the economic blockade was forced on us were impelled to use our minds and brains and succeeded in manufacturing a good many things-that met the needs of the army and the manufacturing plants. This war, the economic blockade and the expulsion of foreign specialists were divine blessings in disguise of which we were negligent. Now, if the government and the army would boycott the products of the world-mongers and make more effort to increase inventiveness, the country may become self -sufficient and not have to beg anything of the enemy.

Here I must add that after such prolonged artificial backwardness our need for foreign manufactured goods is an undeniable fact. This, however, does not mean that we should become a dependency of one of the two poles in advanced sciences. The government and army should send dedicated students to countries that possess advanced technology but who are not colonizers or exploiters. Do not send students to the USA or Russia or to countries that follow these two poles. Perhaps, God willing, the day shall come that these powers see their mistake and fall in the line of philanthropy, humanism and respect for the rights of others. Or, God willing, the oppressed peoples (Mostazafeen), alert nations and devout Muslims make them take their proper places. May that day come!

m)- Radio, television, the press, the cinema and theatres are the most effective means for stupefaction and corruption of nations especially the younger generations. During the past century, especially the second half of it, great plots were hatched and executed through these media against Islam and its faithful servants, the clergy. The mass media are used, also in the colonial propaganda networks of the East and West. They are used to create markets for goods, especially for the sale of luxury and decorative commodities. The media are focused to make people imitate others particularly in areas like clothing, consumption of alcoholic liquors, styles of architecture in housing and in many other things. To behave or be like a farangi (European) was the thing to be proud of. The pseudo-Europeans especially ladies in higher or middle income groups imitated the westerners in all forms and manners, in attire, in talking, in deportment, in all facets of behavior and social intercourse. Foreign words and terms were used in speech and writing in such a way as to be difficult to comprehend by most people, even by the peers of their user. Television films depicting eastern or Western products made young men and women stray from the normal course of their work, throwing life and industry into oblivion in respect of themselves and their personalities and produced pessimism in people vis-à-vis their own beings, their country and culture and about highly valuable works of art and literature, many of which found their way into the art galleries and libraries of the East and West through the treachery of middlemen and collectors.

Pornographic magazines printed pictures and wrote articles detrimental to morality. Newspapers took pride in guiding the youth towards East or West by publishing anti-Islamic and anti-indigenous culture and articles. Extensive publicity promoted centers of vice like houses of prostitution, gambling, casinos and lotteries. Large retail stores sold luxury goods, toilet articles, paraphernalia for games of chance, alcoholic beverages, etc. All this came to the country financed by the sale of oil, gas and other valuable minerals. If the Pahlavi regime had survived, before long, our youths, these children of Islam and the country, who was the nations hope for the future would have been lost to Islam and the nation by the Satanic conspiracies of that corrupt system and through the mass media and pro-West or pro-East liberals and intellectuals. Or, the youth would have ruined their own lives in the centers of vice or turned stooges of the superpowers and destroyed the country. Almighty God has, by His mercy saved us from the mischief of evil-doers.

My advice to the Islamic Consultative Assembly, to the Presidents, to the Guardianship Council, to the Supreme Judicial Council and to the governments, now and in the future, is to maintain the news agencies, the press, and the magazines in the service of Islam and the interests of the country. We must all know that Western style freedom degenerates the youth, and it is condemned in Islamic view and by the intellect. Propaganda literature, written articles, speeches, books and magazines that oppose Islam, public morality and the interests of the country are taboo (haram; interdicted by religion) and it is incumbent on all Muslims to prevent their printing and distribution. Harmful liberties must be checked. If all that is haram and against the path of the nation and the Islamic state and contrary to the prestige of the Islamic Republic is not decisively controlled, then all are to be held responsible. If anyone, including a Hizbullah (lit, the party of God) youth meet with a violation of these rules, they must report it to the appropriate authorities and if they fail to act then the people themselves must take preventive measure. May Allah, the Exalted One, help all!

n)- My advice to the bands, groups and persons who are actively opposing the Islamic Republic and Islam, and to their sons abroad or at home, is that long experience in conspiracy in different ways, in asking foreign authorities and states for support, must have taught you, who regard yourselves wise and knowing, that the course of a self -sacrificing, dedicated nation cannot be altered by acts of terror, sabotage, explosion of bombs and spread of miscalculated lies. No state or government can ever be toppled by such inhuman and illogical methods, particularly a nation like that of Iran whose youth, old men, women and children all sacrifice their lives in the path of the Islamic Republic, the Holy Qur’an and the religion. You know (and you’ll be thinking naively if you don’t) that the nation is not with you and the army is against you and if you assume they were with you, your crude moves, and the acts of crime perpetrated by you, have separated them from you and you’ve gained nothing but the enmity of others. As a well-wisher, my advice to you at the close of my days is that: you are fighting an oppressed nation that has, after 2500 years of suffering under the tyrannical rule of the shahs freed itself, by sacrificing the lives of its finest children and youth, from the yoke of the oppressive Pahlavi regime and the world-mongering East and West. How can the conscience (no matter how wicked) of a man allow him to behave so cruelly and mercilessly with his nation and country for consideration of a doubtful position!? I advise you, give up such useless and unwise actions, be not fooled by the world-mongers. If you have not committed any crime, come back home from wherever you are and get into the fostering lap of Islam. Repent for Allah is the Most Forgiving One! And the nation and the Islamic Republic may, insha-allah (God willing) pardon you! If you have committed a crime for which divine punishment is decreed, return to Him from the middle of the way and repent. And if you have courage, accept your punishment and thereby save your soul from the Painful Scourge! Do not waste your lives longer, change your attitudes and do something else. That is best to you.

I inquire of the supporters of these groups, whether domestic or foreign: why ruin your lives and youth for these people, who, as has been proven, are in the service of world powers, follow their designs and, unknowingly, have fallen in their traps?! What incentive can you have? Why do you wrong your own nation?? What for and who for?! You have been manipulated and deceived by them!! If you live here in this country you can see with your own eyes that these multi-million strong masses are faithful to the Islamic Republic and are dedicated to it. You can see that the present government and regime are most sincerely serving the people and the needy. Those who falsely claim that they are of the people or are mujahed (strugglers, crusaders) or fadais(those who sacrifice their lives) for the people, have actually risen in opposition to Gods men. They have deceived you, young boys and girls, to serve their own aims or the aims of one of the two world-mongering poles, while themselves live in pleasure in the arms of one of these two poles of crime. Or, they live in luxury and comfort in elegant team-houses or residential villas and continue their crimes for which they sacrifice your lives.

My loving advice to you, the youth, who live in this country or abroad, is to give up the wrong path. Return and join up with the deprived peoples of the society who are serving the Islamic Republic with all their hearts. Act to serve the free and independent Iran so that the country and the nation may be rid of the enemy’s sedition and mischief. Live in honors one-and-all and altogether. Why and how long do you want to listen to the commands of people who fight their own nation, with the support of superpowers, who think of nothing except their own personal gain and sacrifice you for their wicked aims and ambitions? In the interim period since the victory of the Revolution you have noted that their words and deeds are two different things. Their claims are made to deceive pure-hearted youths. You know you have no power vis-à-vis the torrential movement of the nation and your actions can result only in the loss of your own lives. I have discharged my duty to provide counsel and advice for you. I hope you will listen to it when it reaches you after my death when there can be no question of personal gain on my part and thus deliver yourselves from the painful scourge decreed by the Lord. May the Beneficent God guide you to the straight path!

My advice to the groups such as communists, people’s guerrillas (fadai-yan-e-Khalq) and other leftists is this: Without prior study of various schools of ideology, without going to and obtaining the views of authorities on Islam, how could you bring yourselves to embrace an ideology that is already defeated and defunct. What was your incentive? What made your hearts settle for isms that are already ruled null and void by the researchers? What is your purpose in wanting to draw your country to the lap of the Soviet Union or China? What makes you fight against your own nation in the name of love for the masses, or plot against your own people for the benefit of foreigners?? You see very well that those who claimed and adhered to communism since its inception have been and still are the most dictatorial, power-hungry, hegemonistic peoples and governments. How many nations have been crushed under the Soviet Union’s pressure and ceased to exist? Yet, the Soviets claim they are supporters of the masses. The Soviet nations, Muslim or non-Muslim, are all struggling and writhing under pressure by the communist party under strangulation worse than anything on earth.

Stalin was one of the so-called bright faces of the party. We all saw his entrance and exit and the accompanying aristocratic ceremonies. Even now that you deceived individuals are ready to sacrifice your lives out of love for the party, the deprived soviet peoples and the peoples of its satellites such as the people of Afghanistan, etc. are perishing under the Soviet regimes cruelty. Meanwhile you, who claim to be siding with the people, hurt and harm the people (of Afghanistan) in any way you can, wherever you can. You committed unthinkable crimes against the respectable people of Amol whom you had erroneously regarded as your staunch supporters and, by deception, sent a good number of them to fight the government and the people with the result that many of them were killed. You, who claim to be supporters of the people, want to hand over the innocent and deprived peoples of Iran to the Soviet dictatorship and for this you disguise yourselves as Fadai-yan-e-Khalq (those who sacrifice their lives for the people) and supporters of the oppressed. This is being carried out now by the Tudeh Party and its cohorts through plotting and intrigues under the guise of supporting the Islamic Republic and by other groups of leftists by means of arms, terror, bombings, etc.

I advise all (political) parties and groups who are known as leftist although indications point to their affiliation with American communists, whether fed and inspired by the West; or those who in the name of self -rule and support for the Kurds and the Baluchis , have taken up arms and ruined the lives of the deprived people of Kurdistan and other localities, and have thus thwarted the Islamic governments efforts to present educational, medical and economic services as well as reconstruction activities in those provinces, such groups as Kumulah and the Democrats , I advise all of these groups to (forsake this path) and join the nation. Their experiences show they have done nothing but harm and have brought nothing but misery to those areas. These are the things they (the leftists) can do and nothing more. Therefore, it is in the interest of themselves, their nation and their provinces, that they co-operate with the government, avoid insurgency, serving the foreigners and doing treason to the country. Rather, let them participate in the country’s reconstruction and rest assured that Islam is better for them than the criminal West or the dictatorial East and can better fulfill mans wishes.

My advice to the Muslim groups, who have mistakenly acquired Eastward or Westward leanings and sometimes supported the hypocrites (monafiqeen), whose treason was proven and who unwittingly cursed those who opposed the enemies of Islam, is that they do not persist in making such mistakes. Let these groups and individuals show Islamic courage and admit their mistakes and, to please the Lord, line up behind the government, the Majles, join the people, and, altogether rescue history’s mostazafeen from the mischief and wickedness of the arrogant people. Remember what that great Muslim jurist, Mudarres said at a sad Majles meeting of his day: Now that we must be destroyed, why do it ourselves. In memory of that great martyr of God I say to you today that it is much better we be eradicated from the face of earth with honor at the treacherous hands of the USA and USSR and meet our God in glory than to live in comfort under the Red Army of East or the black army of the West. Such has been the practice of Gods great men of religion and this is the line we must follow. We should make ourselves believe that if a nation wants to, it can survive without any dependency and that world powers cannot impose anything on a nation against that nations wishes. A lesson must be learned from Afghanistan where the usurping government and the leftist parties have been and still are with the U.S.S.R but have not been able to suppress the people.

Moreover, today, the deprived nations of the world have awakened and soon enough their raised consciousness shall result in uprisings, movements, insurgencies and revolutions. They shall emerge from the domination of the arrogant oppressors and you, Muslims, who care for Islamic values can well see that separation from the East or West is revealing its blessings. Native intellects and minds have become active and are moving in the direction of self -sufficiency. All that the treacherous specialists of the East or the West pretended to be impossible for ourselves to achieve is markedly achieved by the hands and brains of the nation. God willing the trend shall continue in the future. Alas, this revolution took place late! Had it taken place even as late as the beginning of Muhammad-Reza’s rule, this pillaged country would have been something else today.

My advice to the writers, orators, intellectuals, fault-finders and to those with complexes is this: Rather than spending your time pursuing a course contrary to that of the Islamic Republic and doing all you can to vitiate the Majles, the government, and other public servants with your pessimism and ill-will, thereby pushing your country into the path of the superpowers, sit one night in seclusion with your God, and if you do not believe in God, sit in seclusion with your conscience and study your inner motives, of which people are often unaware, and think of the reason why, and, by what standards of fairness do you ignore the blood of all these mutilated bodies of youths strewn everywhere on the battle-fields and in the town and city streets?! Why do you start a war of nerves with a nation that has shaken off its neck the pressures of foreign and domestic oppressors and plunderers and has paid dearly for its freedom and independence with the blood of its children and now wants to preserve these with further sacrifice?! Why do you reopen the way for the arrogant oppressors by treacherous plotting and by creating discord and disunity?! Is it not better if you would guide the government, the Majles and the nation by your pen, word and your minds in order to preserve your homeland? Are the deprived not worthy of your assistance? Is it not better that you help in the establishment of the Islamic government?? Do you regard this Majles, this President, this government and this judicial system worse than what we had in the former regime? Have you forgotten the cruelty with which the former regime treated this oppressed nation? Did you not know that this Islamic country had become a military base for the USA at that time and was treated by her as a colony, or, that the Majles, the government and the military forces were in their hands? Did you not know that foreign specialists and advisors and industrialists played havoc with this nation and its resources? Have you forgotten the spread of prostitution nation-wide, centers of vice and saturnalia, including gambling, bars, night-clubs, liquor stores, cinemas, etc.,? Each one of these was a major agent of corruption of the youth! Have you forgotten the pornography which was promoted by the corrupt mass media during the former regime?

And, now that the vice markets do not exist, the trial of several young men, mostly from deviant and pervert groups, who had acted to defile and tarnish Islam and the Islamic government and the execution of a number of those who had revolted against Islam and the Islamic Republic and were sentenced to death, make you cry humanity!! At the same time you befriend individuals who have frankly and overtly condemned Islam and have risen against it with the sword or with their pens and tongues which is more woeful than armed uprising. With people such as these you enter into bonds of brotherhood and shake hands!? You call individuals whom God has declared mahduruddam (Lit, = whose blood it is lawful to shed) the sight of your eyes (i.e., a highly cherished person)! You sit beside these actors who created the 14th of Esfand (March 5, 1981) calamity in which youths were beaten up, and watched the carnage! You then call such acts Islamic and ethical! But, when the government and the courts of justice try and rightly punish the enemies, the atheistic perverts, you cry, humanity!, you cry Innocence!. I feel sorry for some of the brothers of whose records I am aware. I am interested in some of you, not in those who were insurgents disguised as well-wishers and wolves in lambs clothing for they were actors who made game and fun of all and meant to destroy the country and the Nation because they were servants of one of the two plundering poles.

Those who, with their own unclean hands, martyred the youth, valuable young men, the cherished ‘Ulema and educators, instructors of the community and showed no mercy toward innocent Muslim children, have forfeited everything before Allah and have no way of return as they are governed by the nafs-e-ammarah (carnal soul). But you, mo`men (believer) brothers why don’t you aid the government and the Majles that are trying to serve the deprived, the oppressed, the barefooted, hatless people who are deprived of all things? What is your complaint? What ails you? Have you thought of measuring the amount of service rendered by this government and by the various foundations of the Republic? This was accomplished in spite of the disruptions that any revolution necessitates, despite the imposed war with all its damages, destruction, its millions of local and foreign refugees, with all the acts of sabotage in this relatively short time (compare this) with the development programs of the last regime. Did you not know that the development programs and works in the former regime were confined, almost entirely, to the cities and within a city, to the better quarters, those of the well-to-do? The poorer classes had little or no part of it, whereas the present regime and the Islamic foundations wholeheartedly serve the deprived groups. You believers, support the government so that projects get done faster. Thus, when you perforce appear in the Lords Presence you do so wearing the Badge of Service to His servants.

o)- One, of the issues that require comment is this: Islam does not support oppressive and uncontrolled capitalism which deprives the masses. The Book and the Tradition seriously condemn this type of capitalism and regard it as opposed to social justice. Although some have thought, wrongly, that Islam favors unbridled forms of capitalism that is not true! Such reasoning veils the shining face of Islam and prepares the way for biased attacks by the enemies of Islam, who consider it as a capitalist regime on the order of the U.S.A, England and other Western plunderers. Relying on such baseless accusations and wrong understanding, the enemies, without referring to Islamic sources for clarification of the point, rise to challenge Islam. Nor is Islam a communist or Marxist-Leninist regime which opposes private ownership and advocates, or advocated, communism in all things including sexual relations and homo-sexuality. That would be a destructive dictatorship. Rather, Islam is a balanced and moderate regime that recognizes ownership and respects it in a limited form of (production) and consumption. If this is implemented, a sound economy and social justice will result from it, for social equity is a prerequisite to the health of a regime.

Here, too, a number of unaware and illogical persons with no knowledge of Islam and its (ideas for a) healthy economy have risen in opposition to the first group. By resorting to some Qur’anic verses and citing phrases from the Nahj-ul-Balagha, (they) consider Islam as being in agreement with the deviations in schools of ideologies such as that of Marx and his peers Such men do not pay attention to the (other) parts of the Nahj-ul-Balagha and the Qur’anic verses and, as a result of their inadequate comprehension, have risen to follow a communistic faith. They ignore the inherent atheism, dictatorship and strangulation of human values-by a minority party treating human masses as animals!!

I counsel the Majles, the Guardianship Council, the Government, the President and the Supreme Judicial Council to be humble before the commands of God and not be influenced by the inane propaganda of the cruel, rapacious pole of capitalism and the atheistic pole of communism and to respect ownership and private capital within Islamic limits. I advise you to reassure the nation so that private and creative initiatives proliferate in order to make the country and government reach self-sufficiency in all areas including light and heavy industries. I advise those who lawfully acquire wealth to invest their justly earned gains for innovative development works in agriculture, rural development and industries. This in itself is commendable worship. I advise all to make every effort for the welfare of the deprived classes. This is good work in this world and in the hereafter as these groups have suffered throughout the long and oppressive feudal and monarchical history. How nice it would be if the wealthy classes could voluntarily provide housing and other relief items for the slum dwellers, as it would be a blessing to them on earth and in the next-world. It is far from fairness that one person own scores of buildings while scores of other people (of his community) lack a single room in which to live.

p)- My advice to those clerics and to the pseudo-clerics who oppose Islam for various reasons and devote their time to uproot it and aid other enemy plotting and political intrigues and, as is said, donate to them sumptuous sums from Moines they receive from Godless capitalists, is this: You have gained noting so far from your wrong-doings and, I think, you will not achieve anything if you continue. Thus, if you do all this evil for the sake of this world, God shall not let you gain anything. It is better for you, then, to repent while there is a chance; beg for the Lords forgiveness and join ranks with the oppressed nation and support the Islamic Republic which has come to be by the sacrifices of the nation, although I do not think you will repent.

To that group who mistakenly or deliberately commit errors and oppose Islamic laws and decrees and are against the Islamic Republic and act, for God’s sake, to overthrow it and think this regime is worse than monarchy, or is one like it, I say: think about the Islamic Republic with sincerity in seclusion. Make a fair and impartial comparison between it and the former regimes and consider that world revolutions have all entailed disruption, riots, confusion and disturbances and opportunists wanting to take advantage of such conditions for their own selfish aims. Consider the fact that the Islamic Republic faced all these things and, besides, had to withstand false accusations, propaganda, lies, armed attacks from the outside and within its borders and had to fight the unavoidable infiltration of corrupt, anti-Islamic elements, who were trying, in all state and government organs, to create dissatisfaction and unrest. Moreover, most of the public servants in the regime were inexperienced and many old-timers were dissatisfied because their unlawful incomes were curtailed. Thus, they showed their resentment by spreading lies and baseless rumors. All of this, plus a shortage of judges, strenuous economic entanglements, and difficulties in purging corrupt personnel and a shortage of qualified, competent personnel and many other problems had to be and were dealt with. On the other hand, biased monarchists, with immeasurable capital acquired by usury, foreign exchange manipulations, profiteering, exorbitant commodity prices, extortionist rates of services, smuggling, hoarding and similar evil acts, place the deprived classes under extreme pressure and draw the society to vice and disintegration. Men of this category come to you with deceptive purposes. To make you believe what they say they sham Islam sometimes even pay the sahm-e-imam (Imams portion) and shed crocodile tears. They enrage and incite you to opposition. Many of these individuals sponge the people’s blood or exploit them by some illegitimate ways and means and make the country’s economy go bankrupt.

My brotherly, humble advice is that you, honorable people, be not influenced by rumors. Support and strengthen this republic for the sake of God and for the preservation of Islam. Be sure that if this Republic falls, a republic acceptable to Baqiyyatullah (the Gha`em or Mahdi = titles of the last (12th) Innocent Imam, now in occultation but whose advent is expected) and obedient to you shall not be realized. Rather, a regime acceptable to either one of the two power poles will replace it much to the disappointment of the worlds deprived peoples who have turned to Islam and the Islamic government. Islam shall for ever become isolated and you will regret your conduct someday when it is too late! If you gentlemen expect all things to be Islamized overnight, you are making a mistake. Such a miracle has never happened in all the history of man.

And, when the great Musleh (Reformer) appears do not think that a miracle will take place and the entire world will be put aright in a day! Rather, it is by hard work and sacrifices that the oppressors will be done away with. And if you think, as some misguided laymen do, that for the Mahdi (AJ) to appear, the world must be entirely overwhelmed with cruelty and injustice therefore, to have him appear sooner, cruelty should be promoted, then let us all chime our own death knells. (From God we are and unto Him we return.)

q)- My advice to all Muslims and oppressed peoples of the world is this: you should not sit and wait till your own authorities or rulers, or some foreign power act to make a gift of freedom and independence to you. During the past one hundred years we have observed the infiltration of the world’s major powers into all Islamic countries and into smaller lands. Reliable history has related this for us. None of the rulers of any of these countries has been concerned with the freedom, independence and welfare of his nation and none is, even today. Rather the majority of such rulers have been themselves cruel oppressors who tried to strangulate their own people. Whatever good they did was to benefit themselves or was in the interest of some special group. Or, such rulers promoted the welfare of the upper already well-to-do classes but never did a thing to benefit the deprived groups and slum-dwellers. These last groups were deprived even of their daily bread. The miserable, deprived groups were taken into the service of the profligate Epicureans or they were made puppets for big powers, doing their best to make their countries more and more dependent on foreign powers. The rulers of such countries, who were rulers in name only, secured the interests of their Eastern or Western masters, turned their countries into markets for the consumption of the manufactured products of their overlords, kept their own lands in an undeveloped condition, and are doing so even now.

0 Mustazafeen (deprived, oppressed) of the world! 0 Muslims and Muslim Countries of the world! Arise and wrest your rights by your teeth and fingernails! Never mind the rigmarole and propaganda cries of the superpowers and their puppets! Drive out from your lands your wicked rulers who hand over your wages to your enemies and the enemies of Islam. You and the dedicated public servants should take charge of the affairs of your country. Gather together, all of you, under the proud banner of Islam and fight the enemies of Islam and of the deprived peoples of the world. Advance toward an Islamic sovereign government with so many free and independent republics. If you realize this, the arrogant powers shall retreat to their rightful positions and all the Mustazafeen will come to inherit the earth and attain to guardianship over it. Look forward to the day when Gods promise shall be fulfilled!

r)- At the conclusion of this testament once more I say to the honorable Iranian nation that in this world the amount and volume of one’s pains, sufferings, devotion, deprivations, and sacrifices is commensurate with the greatness of one’s cause and its value and station. That for which you crusading, noble nation have risen and follow and give of your life and wealth for, is the noblest, the most sublime and the most valuable cause that has been put forth since time began, nor will a similar cause be ever presented again. That cause is the school of divinity in its broad sense and meaning. It is the idea of Tawhid (the oneness of God or Monotheism) in its supremely lofty dimensions whose ultimate creative foundation lies throughout the expanse of the world of being and at the levels and degrees of Occultation and Presence (Ghayb and Shuhood) as made fully manifest in the School of Muhammad (PBUH), and, for the realization of which the Prophets (PBUH) and the Oulia or divine guardians (as) worked hard. Absolute perfection and utmost glory and beauty cannot be attained except by it, – the Supreme Divinity who has exalted the earthly man above the heavenly beings. That which accrues to the earthly man from progression in His path does not accrue to any other being perceptible by the eye, or veiled.

You, Mujahid (crusading) nation, move under an emblem and banner that is waving everywhere in the moral and material world! Whether you are aware of it or not, you are treading in a path that is the path of all prophets and is the only path to happiness and bliss! This is the incentive or motive of the prophets in accepting and embracing martyrdom. This is what makes martyrdom to them sweeter than honey. Your youth have experienced this at the battle grounds and it has made them live in ecstasy ever since. It is reflected in the souls and conduct of their (the martyrs) brothers, sisters and parents. We must truly say: We wish we were with you (the martyrs), perhaps we, too, could be blessed with a great success. May they enjoy the breeze that delights the heart and the sight that sets fire to it. We should know that a fragment of that sight or epiphany is made manifest in the hot, cultivated fields; in enervating factories, workshops; in industrial centers of research, development and inventions; in the nation on the whole; in the bazaar, the streets and rural areas; and in all who serve Islam, the Islamic Republic and work toward progress and self-sufficiency. As long as this spirit of Taavon (co-operation) and Taabod (dedication, commitment) prevails in the society, our country shall, God willing, be immune to worldly woes. Thank God, the theological centers, the universities and the young generation in education institutes, have all been blessed with the divine spirit. They have control over all these agencies which, God willing (inshaallah) are safe from encroachment by the saboteurs and perverts.

My advice to all is to advance towards self-awareness, self-sufficiency and independence with the remembrance of God. Without any doubt His helping Hand is with you if you be with Him and continue in this spirit of Taavon (co-operation) for advancement of the Islamic country. I pray that all that I see in the noble nation of alertness, intelligence, commitment, devotion, spirit of resistance, and courage being employed in the path of God, shall, by His Grace, be transmitted to the successive future generations with increased momentum. With a peaceful mind, a certain heart, a happy spirit, and a conscience hopeful for God’s mercy, I take my leave of all brothers and sisters to journey to the eternal abode. I need your prayers and I beseech Almighty Gods pardon and forgiveness for my inadequacies and my faults. I hope, the nation, too, will forgive my shortcomings and failings, and move ahead with power and determination. Know that the departure of one servant shall not leave a scratch on the steel shield that is the nation. Worthier servants of greater stature are in service and Allah preserves the nation and the oppressed people of the world.

(Wassalam-o-Alaikum wa Ala Ibadillah-e-salehin.)

Ruhullah Al-Musawi AL-Khomeini

(Bahman 26, 1361 Jamadi-al-awwal 1, 1403 February 15, 1983)

In His Most Exalted Name

MY son Ahmad will read this will and testament to the people after my death. If he has an excuse for not doing so, the President of the Islamic Republic or Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly or President of State Supreme Court shall kindly accept the task and if they too, are excused, let one of the Foqaha of the Council of Guardians accept the trouble. Ruhullah Al-Musawi AL-Khomeini

In His Most Exalted Name:

I should like to add at the end of this 29-page will and testament with its prologue the following points:

1- While still here with you, I would like to declare that certain false statements have already been imputed to me and which may increase after I am gone. Therefore, I hereby declare that nothing imputed, ascribed or attributed to me has my confirmation unless it is in my handwriting, has my signature, is in my voice, with the affirmation of the experts, or what I have said on the television of the Islamic Republic.

2- Some individuals have claimed, even while I am alive, that they have been writing my statements. This is hereby denied. All such statements have been prepared and written by myself only.

3- Apparently some claim to have arranged my going to Paris, France. This is a lie. After I was turned back from Kuwait, I chose Paris in consultation with Ahmad for it was probable that Islamic states would decline admission for they were under the Shahs influence but Paris was not.

4- In the course of the movement and the revolution I spoke favorably of certain individuals who had pretensions to Islam but later realized their deception. My favorable comments were made at a time they pretended to be committed to the Islamic Republic. Such matters should not be taken advantage of. The criterion for everyone is his current conduct.

Ruhullah Al-Musawi Al-Khomeini

practical law
Imam Khomeini’s Practical Law of Islam for download

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