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Ibaziyah: An Introduction to Islamic Jurisprudential Sects

Endnotes

1- See:

–         Qalhātī, al-Kashf wa al-Bayān.

–         Nūr al-Dīn Sālimī, al-Lum‘ah al-Marḍīyah min Ash‘ah al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         Ali Akbar ḍiyā’ī, Mu‘jam Maṣādir al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         ‘Abd al-Ḥalīm Rajab Muhammad, al-Ibāḍīyah fī al-Miṣr wa al-Maghrib,

–         Ali Yaḥyá Mu‘ammar, al-Ibāḍīyah bayn al-Firaq al-Islāmīyah,

–         Ali Yaḥyá Mu‘ammar, al-Ibāḍīyah fī Mukab al-Tārīkh,

–         Mas‘ūd Jalālī Muqaddam, The great encyclopedia of Islam, V2,

–         Ibrāhīm Baḥḥāz, Mushawwahāt al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         ‘Amr Khalīfah Nāmī, man Hamma al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-Niḥal,

–         ‘Abd al-Qāhir Baghdādī Isfarāyīnī, al-Farq bayn al-Firaq,

–         Abū al-Ḥasan Ash‘arī, Maqālāt al-Islāmīyīn,

–         ‘Abd al-Raḥmān Badwī, Madhāhib al-Islāmīyīn,

–         Ahmad b. Sa‘īd al-Shamākhī, Kitāb al-Sayr,

–         Abū Mawdūd Ḥājib, Sayr al-‘Ulamā’ al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         Īsá al-‘Izrī, al-Sayr al-‘Ummānīyah,

–         ‘Amr al-Nāmī, Dirāsāt ‘an al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         Al-Darjīnī, Ṭabaqāt al-Mashāyikh,

–         ‘Abd Allah b. Midād, Sīrah Ibn Midād,

–         Jam‘īyah al-Turāth, Mu‘jam A‘lām al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         ‘Awaḍ Khalīfāt, Nash’ah al-Ḥarakah al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         Farḥāt al-Ja‘bīrī, al-Bu‘d al-Ḥiḍārī li al-‘Aqīdah al-Ibāḍīyah,

–         Muhammad Jawād Mashkūr, Farhang-i Firaq Islāmī,

–         Maḥmūd Shahābī, Adwār-i Fiqh,

2- Al-Ḥarakah al-Ibāḍīyah fī Mashriq al-‘Arabī, P. 49,

3- Mukhtaṣar al-Tārīkh al-Ibāḍīyah, P. 28,

4- Dirāsah fī al-Fikr al-Ibāḍī, PP. 22, 26-32, 44-46,

5- Buḥūth fī al-Milal wa al-Niḥal, V. 5, PP. 302-303,

6- Al-Uṣūl al-Īmānīyah, PP. 355-356,

7- Al-Munjid fī al-A‘lām, al-Rustamīyūn,

8- Al-Uṣūl al-Īmānīyah, PP. 357,

9- See: The great encyclopedia of Islam, V. 2, Ibāḍīyah. (Mas‘ūd Jalālī Muqaddam),

10- In 58 A.H., after releasing from ‘Ubayd Allah’s jail, Abū Bilāl leaved Basra along with his 30 friends, and came down to Āsak (a place between Rāmhurmuz and Arrijān) where his followers increased to 40. He declared from the beginning that they never put somebody to the sword, except that they become under attack. When he attacked the caravan carrying Ibn Zīyād’s goods, he took only his and his friends portion from the Treasury of Muslims, and turned back rest of the goods to the members of caravan. Answering the question that why did not you take all the goods? He said: they perform prayer and divide these goods among them as fay’ (booty, tribute, or revenue). In 60 A.H., ‘Ubayd Allah b. Zīyād sent 2000 soldiers to suppress them. Before starting the war, Abū Bilāl asked the enemy, why do you want to fight with us? We have not corrupted on the earth, and never draw sword against anybody. Anyhow, fight started, Caliph’s army was defeated by 40 Khārijī warriors, and ran away. (Ibn Athīr, 3/519) Next year, ‘Ubayd Allah b. Zīyād sent another army consists of 4000 soldiers to crush them. War happened on Friday, in Dārāyjird of Fars. At the beginning, Caliph’s army could not do anything, but at the time of prayer (Friday prayer) Abū Bilāl asked for reprieve to perform the prayer. When Khawārij were praying, Caliph’s soldiers blitzed on them and killed all, including Abū Bilāl.

11- He allowed taqīyah (dissimulating belief in the event of danger), and believed that God permitted it to put believers at ease. (Mubarrad, 2/182) qīyām and qu‘ūd (uprising and not uprising against a cruel ruler). (Darjīnī, 2/215) It is quoted from him that: if I had two lives, I will spend one for the cause of jihad and another by the way of helping Muslims. (Jīṭālī, 2/143)He regarded anybody who performs prayer, as a Muslim and forbade damaging his rights, as well as drawing sword against Muslims. He used to try to evade oppression, and did not wage a war except for defense. He rejected to engage in unreasoning massacre (that was called as isti‘rāḍ), and dissociated himself from the Khawārij who did it. He also prohibited the revolt of women. (Mubarrad, 2/182-185; Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih, 1/184; Ibn Athīr, 3/518) Hqu‘ūd (not uprising against a cruel ruler) absolutely, and historical sources have mentioned the cases of his e allowed taqīyah, and, contrary to extremist Khawārij, did not negate

12- Ibid, PP. 27-28; al-‘Uqūd al-Fiḍḍīyah, PP. 93-103.

13- Almost all scholars of ḥadīth and rijāl (critical study of ḥadīths’ transmitters) praise him. They consider him trustworthy, adore his ijtihād and scientific degree, call him one of the Qur’an memorizers (of the third category), and say that he was most knowledgeable person concerning the Holy Qur’an. In addition, it is known that in the absence of Ḥasan Baṣrī, people took fatwa from him. Surely, if Sunni mass and jurists had even a little doubt about the accuracy of Jābir’s faith, they never grant such a great place to him, and the scholars of dirāyah (critical examination and classification of ḥadīths) and rijāl, despite of being punctilious and strict, did not praise him. In addition, he has not called weak or rejected in any bibliography. Darjīnī mentions Jābir, Abū Bilāl Mirdās, ‘Abd Allah b. Ibāḍ, and some other Khawārij as Ibāḍī great scholars of the second half of the first century A.H. He calls Jābir the first Sheikh of second Ibāḍī scholars’ category. Another thing which shows the acceptability of Jābir among Ibāḍīyah is that, Naffāth b. Naṣr, among all books of the library of an Abbasid Caliph (perhaps Ma’mūn), was fond of only the Jābir’s compilation of ḥadīths, which Ibāḍīyah did not possess, and transcribed that book. Moreover, it was usual for Ibāḍī scholars to narrate traditions from Jābir.

Ibāḍīyah’s relation and adhering to Jābir is not allotted to the time after him, but it backs to his lifetime, too. Some scholars of rijāl indicating this point have mentioned that he himself has rejected this relation and has dissociated himself from Ibāḍīyah, and as Ibn Sa‘d says, he denounced this sect even in his death agony. But, Shahristānī mentions a person by the name of Abū al-Sha‘thā’ as an earlier Khārijī scholar. In addition, Ibn Abī al-Ḥadīd notes a person with the same nickname as an Ibāḍī man, and along the successors like ‘Amr b. Dīnār and Mujāhid, counts Jāber of Khawārij. Although Ibāḍīyah count Jābir as their great scholar and praise him to the skies, but have not narrated any word of him that shows his acceptance or approval to Ibāḍīyah, and proves his relation to them. Anyhow, there is no convincing proof for counting Jābir as an Ibāḍī; however, Ibāḍīyah can regard his dissociation from Ibāḍīyah as a case of taqīyah. Therefore, it is impossible to make a conclusive judgment about the issue.

14- Thamīnī; Ali Muhammad Ḥakīmīyān, the great encyclopedia of Islam.

15- He descends from Abū Ḥafṣ ‘Umar Hintātī, the grandfather of Ḥafṣ family, from the large tribe of Hintātah. He was born in 1130 in Yasqin (or Yasjin/ Yazqin) the suburbs of Mīzāb (Mizāb), Algeria. He memorized the Holy Qur’an, and learned inflexion and syntax in his town. Then, he immigrated to Warjalān (Warqalah) with his father. He engaged in commerce in his youth, and, after his father’s death, took the charge of his property in Yasqin and Warjalān. About 1160, with entering Abū Zakarīyā Yaḥyá b. Ṣāliḥ Afḍalī (a jurist and starter of reformative movement in Mīzāb, died at 1202 A.H.) in Yasqin, Thamīnī learned religious studies ceaselessly from him. His intelligence and poetic talent, which has been strengthened by living in desert, associating with the Bedouin and being under the influence of their eloquence, and conducting many literary studies; caused him to progress and achieve the high level of science. So that, his master, because of his eloquence and talent for presenting scientific issues in versatile style, entitled him “al-‘Arabī al-Salīqah” (an eloquent Arab man), and asked him to write down what he has learned. Responding the master’s request, Thamīnī started to write, and offered some of the writings to his master to view. His most important disciples are as follows: Ibrāḥīm b. Yūsuf Aṭṭafayyash (d. 1303), Ḥammū b. bi-Ahmad bi-Kallī (Bākilī), bi-al-Ḥājj b. Kāsī b. Muhammad Qarārī known as Sheikh bi-al-Ḥājj (d. 1243), Ḥammū wa al-Ḥājj Yasqinī (Yazqinī), Abū Ya‘qūb Yūsuf b. Ḥammū b. ‘Addūn (d. 1252), Thamīnī’s nephew Ibrāḥīm b. Bīḥmān (d. 1232), and Thamīnī’s daughter Ḥājjah.

            In 1201, Thamīnī became the leader in banī Yasjin mosque, as well as the leader of supreme council of ‘Ammī Sa‘īd in Mīzāb. That council, by having authority of issuing fatwas and executive power, was the highest authority to resolve problems and settle matters in Ibāḍīyah community. In the same year, he took over the directorship of “Hay’at ‘Azzābah” (a council consisted from the great Ibāḍīs that made decisions about all Ibāḍīyah. See: Mu‘ammar, V. 1, P. 97).

16- Al-Nīl includes 22 chapters that are compiled in three parts with an epilogue at the end of every chapter. It is reported that Thamīnī wrote al-Nīl through 18 years, and after completing it, he offered the book to his master, Yaḥyá b. Ṣāliḥ, to view, and Yaḥyá revised it. Then, Thamīnī summarized it twice, which leads to inordinate brevity of some parts of the book. The style and method of al-Nīl is similar to al-Mukhtaṣar, written by Khalīl b. Isḥāq Mālikī (d. 776). Sharḥ Mufaṣṣal is the most famous commentary of al-Nīl that is written by Muhammad b. Yūsuf Aṭṭafayyash, known as Quṭb al-A’immah (d. 1303). Other commentaries of the book include, the commentary of Qāsim b. Sulaymān Shamākhī (d. 1265), and the commentary of Ibrāhīm b. ‘Umar Bayyūḍ (d. 1401). (for more information about these commentaries, as well as other commentaries of the book, see: Mu‘jam A‘lām al-Ibāḍīyah, V. 2, PP. 20,198, 342, 372, 399; Sa‘d Allah Qimārī, V. 7, PP. 78, 86-88) Ernest Zaies has translated some parts of al-Nīl into French. Other jurisprudential texts of Thamīnī are as follows:

–         Al-Takmīl li-mā Akhalla bi-hi Kitāb al-Nīl: about the decrees of land. It is a summary of the book, Uṣūl al-Araḍīn fī al-Fann al-Mi‘mārī, written by Abū al-‘Abbās Ahmad b. Muhammad (d. 504), and, by definition, it is a supplement of the al-Nīl wa Shifā’ al-‘Alīl. This book is published by Thamīnī’s grandson, Muhammad b. Ṣāliḥ, containing a detailed biography of his grandfather, and an annotation by Ibrāhīm b. Abi Bakr Ḥaffār (d. 1373),

–         Al-Ward al-Bisām fī Riyāḥ al-Aḥkām: regarding mu‘āmalāt (worldly affairs). It is a supplement of al-Nīl wa Shifā’ al-‘Alīl. It is published, and Aghbirī ‘Ummānī has turned it into poetry,

–         Al-Tāj fī Ḥuqūq al-Azwāj: regarding reciprocal duties and rights of married couple,

–         Al-Tāj ‘alá al-Minhāj, or Al-Tāj al-Manẓūm min Durar al-Minhāj al-Ma‘lūm: it is an abridgement of Minhāj al-Ṭālibīn wa Balāgh al-Rāghibīn, written by Khamīs ‘Ummānī,

–         Al-Miṣbāḥ: it is an abridgement of two books written by Abū al-‘Abbās Ahmad b. Muhammad Farasṭāyī (d. 504), under the titles of Abi Mas’alah and al-Alwāḥ,

–         Al-Asrār al-Nūrānīyah: it is an abridgement of a book about prayer, Sharḥ al-Rā’īyah written by Abū Naṣr Fatḥ b. Nūḥ Malūshā’ī.

–         Al-Nūr,

–         The commentary of a theological book, al-Nūnīyah written by Abū Naṣr Fatḥ b. Nūḥ Milūshāyī,

–         An abridgement of Ḥāshīyah,

17- Some other Contemporary Ibāḍīs are as follows:

–         Ibrāhīm b. Sa‘īd al-‘Ibrī. (a great Ibāḍī from Oman),

–         ‘Abd Allah b. Sayf b. Muhammad al-Kandī. (a great Ibāḍī from Oman),

–         Dr. ‘Amr Khalīfah Nāmī,

–         Sheikh Ibrāhīm Bayyūḍ,

–         Sheikh Abū al-Yaqḍān Ibrāhīm,

–         Sheikh ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ‘Umar bi-Kallī,

–         ‘Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Barak,

–         Abū Mawdūd Ḥājib al-Ṭā’ī,

–         ‘Amrus b. Fatḥ al-Masākinī,

–         Sālim b. Ya‘qūb al-Jirbī,

–         Mahdī al-Nafūsī al-Wīghawī,

–         Muḥkam b. Hūd al-Hawārī,

–         Dr. ‘Amr Khalīfah al-Nām,

–         Munīr b. al-Nayyir al-Ja‘lānī,

18- See: the great encyclopedia of Islam, Ibāḍīyah. (Mas‘ūd Jalālī Muqaddam); Qalhātī, al-Kshf wa al-Bayān.

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